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Primexine deposition and plasma membrane undulation are the initial steps of pollen wall formation. However, little is known about the genes involved in this important biological process. Here, we report a novel gene, NO PRIMEXINE AND PLASMA MEMBRANE UNDULATION (NPU), which functions in the early stage of pollen wall development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis(More)
Hybrid power systems, formed by combining high-energy-density batteries and high-power-density ultracapacitors in appropriate ways, provide high-performance and high-efficiency power systems for electric vehicle applications. This paper first establishes dynamic models for the ultracapacitor, the battery and a passive hybrid power system, and then based on(More)
Introduction For Chinese as Foreign Language (CFL) learners, tones are one of the most difficult aspects to master, especially for students whose first language (L1) is not a tonal language, such as English. There could be many reasons that may cause these English-speaking CFL learners' tonal errors, but among them a very influential factor may be a(More)
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