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Novel experimental techniques reveal the simultaneous activity of larger and larger numbers of neurons. As a result there is increasing interest in the structure of cooperative--or correlated--activity in neural populations, and in the possible impact of such correlations on the neural code. A fundamental theoretical challenge is to understand how the(More)
The performance of current HMM-based automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems degrade significantly in real-world applications where there exist mismatches between training and testing conditions caused by factors such as mismatched signal capturing and transmission channels and additive environmental noises. Among many approaches proposed previously to(More)
This paper presents two new ideas for text dependent mispronunciation detection. Firstly, mispronunciation detection is formulated as a classification problem to integrate various predictive features. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as the classifier and the loglikelihood ratios between all the acoustic models and the model corresponding to the given(More)
Recently, it has been reported that context-dependent deep neural network (DNN) has achieved some unprecedented gains in many challenging ASR tasks, including the well-known Switchboard task. In this paper, we first investigate DNN for several large vocabulary speech recognition tasks. Our results have confirmed that DNN can consistently achieve about(More)
Routing is one of the important phases in VLSI/ULSI physical design. The obstacle-avoiding rectilinear Steiner minimal tree (OARSMT) construction is an essential part of routing since macro cells, IP blocks, and pre-routed nets are often regarded as obstacles in the routing phase. Efficient OARSMT algorithms can be employed in practical routers iteratively.(More)
Routing is one of the important steps in VLSI/ULSI physical design. The rectilinear Steiner minimum tree (RSMT) construction is an essential part of routing. Since macro cells, IP blocks, and pre-routed nets are often regarded as obstacles in the routing phase, obstacle-avoiding RSMT (OARSMT) algorithms are useful for practical routing applications. This(More)
Both acute (24 h) and chronic (10-20 week) exposure of human fibroblast cells to low dose sodium arsenite (As(III)) significantly affects activating protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) DNA binding activity. Short-term treatment with 0.1-5 microM As(III) up-regulates expression of c-Fos and c-Jun and the redox regulators, thioredoxin(More)
In a traditional HMM compensation approach to robust speech recognition that uses Vector Taylor Series (VTS) approximation of an explicit model of environmental distortions, the set of generic HMMs are typically trained from “clean” speech only. In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood approach to training generic HMMs from both “clean” and(More)
Venous thrombosis is a major medical disorder caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Little is known about the genetic background of venous thrombosis in the Chinese population. A total of 1,304 individuals diagnosed with a first venous thrombosis and 1,334 age- and sex-matched healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Resequencing of(More)
We have developed a new face hallucination framework termed from local pixel structure to global image super-resolution (LPS-GIS). Based on the assumption that two similar face images should have similar local pixel structures, the new framework first uses the input low-resolution (LR) face image to search a face database for similar example high-resolution(More)