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Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA) is a new population-based evolutionary algorithm. It divides its population of solutions into several sub-populations, and then searches for the optimal solution through two operations: assimilation and competition. The assimilation operation moves each non-best solution (called colony) in a sub-population toward the(More)
This paper analytically investigates scattering and absorption of a polymer microparticle for laser. Micrometer- and nanometer-sized particles possess characteristic physical and chemical properties different from those of bulk materials. Based on the measurement of radiation pressure exerted on a particle, the absorption analysis of a polymer microparticle(More)
Language is an enormous barrier to global e-commerce. Internet users favor visiting or shopping on Web sites presented in their native language. This research proposes a shopbot with a multilingual ontology to overcome this language barrier. The shopbot, called WebShopper, collects product data from online vendors over the Web and enables customers to(More)
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