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We study some methods of combining procedures for forecasting a continuous random variable. Statistical risk bounds under the square error loss are obtained under mild distributional assumptions on the future given the current outside information and the past observations. The risk bounds show that the combined forecast automatically achieves the best(More)
General results on adaptive density estimation are obtained with respect to any countable collection of estimation strategies under Kullback-Leibler and square L 2 losses. It is shown that without knowing which strategy works best for the underlying density, a single strategy can be constructed by mixing the proposed ones to be adaptive in terms of(More)
It is well known that AIC and BIC have different properties in model selection. BIC is consistent in the sense that if the true model is among the candidates, the probability of selecting the true model approaches 1. On the other hand, AIC is minimax-rate optimal for both parametric and nonparametric cases for estimating the regression function. There are(More)
Various discriminant methods have been applied for classification of tumors based on gene expression profiles, among which the nearest neighbor (NN) method has been reported to perform relatively well. Usually cross-validation (CV) is used to select the neighbor size as well as the number of variables for the NN method. However, CV can perform poorly when(More)
We study a multi-armed bandit problem in a setting where covariates are available. We take a nonparametric approach to estimate the functional relationship between the response (reward) and the covariates. The estimated relationships and appropriate randomization are used to select a good arm to play for a greater expected reward. Randomization helps(More)
Adaptation over diierent procedures is of practical importance. Diierent procedures perform well under diierent conditions. In many practical situations, it is rather hard to assess which conditions are (approximately) satissed so as to identify the best procedure for the data at hand. Thus automatic adaptation over various scenarios is desirable. A(More)
The extent to which myelin-specific Th1 and Th17 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is controversial. Combinations of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and IL-23 with transforming growth factor beta were used to differentiate myelin-specific T cell receptor transgenic T cells into Th17 cells, none of which(More)
Ethylene responsive factors (ERFs) are important in regulating plant pathogen resistance, abiotic stress tolerance and plant development. Recent studies have greatly enlarged the ERF protein family and revealed more important roles of ERFs in plants. Here, we report our finding of a tomato ERF protein TSRF1, which is transcriptionally up-regulated by(More)