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Neurons express multiple types of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels. Two subtypes of neuronal L-type Ca2+ channels are encoded by CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 pore-forming subunits. To compare targeting of CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels, we transfected rat hippocampal neuronal cultures with surface-epitope-tagged sHA-CaV1.2 or sHA-CaV1.3a constructs and(More)
The role of Fat Mass and Obesity-associated protein (FTO) and its substrate N6-methyladenosine (m6A) in mRNA processing and adipogenesis remains largely unknown. We show that FTO expression and m6A levels are inversely correlated during adipogenesis. FTO depletion blocks differentiation and only catalytically active FTO restores adipogenesis. Transcriptome(More)
Soluble oligomeric aggregates of the amyloid-beta (A beta) peptide are believed to be the most neurotoxic A beta species affecting the brain in Alzheimer disease (AD), a terminal neurodegenerative disorder involving severe cognitive decline underscored by initial synaptic dysfunction and later extensive neuronal death in the CNS. Recent evidence indicates(More)
The ease and effectiveness of colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has allowed rapid amplification of DNA fragments and screening of large number of colonies of interest including transformants and mutants with genetic manipulations. Here, we evaluated colony PCR in Chlamydomonas. Individual colonies were treated with 10 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid(More)
Cognitive deficits such as impaired decision-making can be a consequence of persistent pain. Normal functions of the intact amygdala and prefrontal cortex are required for emotion-based decision-making that relies on the ability to assess risk, attribute value, and identify advantageous strategies. We tested the hypothesis that pain-related cognitive(More)
Neurons express multiple types of voltage-gated calcium (Ca2+) channels. Two subtypes of neuronal L-type Ca2+ channels are encoded by CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 pore-forming subunits. Both CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 subunits contain class I PDZ (postsynaptic density-95/Discs large/zona occludens-1) domain-binding consensus at their C termini. In yeast two-hybrid screen of(More)
Evidence suggests that the long-term adaptations in the hippocampus after repeated drug treatment may parallel its role during memory formation. The neuroplasticity that subserves learning and memory is also believed to underlie addictive processes. We have reported previously that repeated morphine administration alters local distribution of endocytic(More)
Interactive graph cuts are widely used in object segmentation but with some disadvantages: 1) Manual interactions may cause inaccurate or even incorrect segmentation results and involve more interactions especially for novices. 2) In some situations, the manual interactions are infeasible. To overcome these disadvantages, we propose a novel approach, namely(More)