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The standard literature on working time has modelled the decisions of firms in a deterministic framework in which firms can choose between employment and overtime (given mandated standard hours). Contrary to this approach, we consider the impact of uncertainty and real options on the decision of working time and examine the determinants of employment and(More)
Spectral clustering has attracted much research interest in recent years since it can yield impressively good clustering results. Traditional spectral clustering algorithms first solve an eigenvalue decomposition problem to get the low-dimensional embedding of the data points, and then apply some heuristic methods such as k-means to get the desired(More)
Continuous innovation, research and development in technology, manufacturing and production provide the basis for continuous growth and profit. This paper examines how start-up enterprises achieve their operational success. Literature review and the case study method were applied to support the factors of sixteen enterprises within the Hsin-Chu Science(More)
Two issues; the liberalisation of labour markets and monetary unification, have taken centre stage in policy debates on the future of the European Union. We show that both have the effect of raising capital mobility as well as labour-market flexibility. The reduction of exchange-rate fluctuations reduces the cost of both entering a market – by setting up(More)
In this paper, we propose the concept of involutive direction ss a vector representation for the concept of involutive division proposed by Gerdt and hi co-workers. With this representation, most of the properties of involutive divisions such as Noetherity, Artinity, and constructivity, can be greatly simplified. A new algorithm to compute the involutive(More)
The paper studies the interaction between cyclical uncertainty and investment in a stochastic real option framework where demand shifts stochastically between three different states, each with different rates of drift and volatility. In our setting, the shifts are governed by a three-state Markov switching model with constant transition probabilities. The(More)
The standard literature on working time has modelled the decisions of firms in a deterministic framework in which firms can choose between employment and overtime (given mandated standard hours). Contrary to this approach, we follow the real options approach, which allows us to investigate the value to a firm of waiting to adjust labour when the firm ́s(More)
In this paper we analyse the impact of policy uncertainty on foreign direct investment strategies. The paper follows the real options approach, which allows to investigate the value to a firm of waiting to invest and/or disinvest, when payoffs are stochastic due to political uncertainty and investments are partially reversible. Across the board we find that(More)