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The prevalent DNA modification in higher organisms is the methylation of cytosine to 5-methylcytosine (5mC), which is partially converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the Tet (ten eleven translocation) family of dioxygenases. Despite their importance in epigenetic regulation, it is unclear how these cytosine modifications are reversed. Here, we(More)
The negative signal provided by interactions of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands, costimulatory molecules PD-L1 (also B7-H1) and PD-L2 (also B7-DC), is involved in the mechanisms of tumor immune evasion. In this study, we found that this negative signal was also involved in immune evasion in tumor immunotherapy. When we used different doses of a(More)
AIM To develop a method to isolate liver stem cells fast and efficiently. METHODS Fetal mouse liver cells were characterized by cell surface antigens (c-Kit and CD45/TER119) using flow cytometry. The candidate liver stem cells were sorted by using immuno-magnetic microbeads and identified by clone-forming culture, RT-PCR and immunofluorescence assays. (More)
Although the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) has been generally thought to enhance antitumor immune responses and be involved in antitumor mechanisms of many other immunotherapy molecules, it has also been reported that IFN-gamma could promote tumor immune evasion. In this report, by using an ideal mouse model that expresses IFN-gamma(More)
Many tumor immunotherapy efforts are focused on the generation of strong T-cell response against tumor antigens. However, strong T-cell response does not always coincide with tumor rejection, for which upregulated expression of immunoinhibitory molecules may be responsible. In this study, the treatment with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) vaccine induced an(More)
AIM To analyze the metastasis-related proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and discover the biomarker candidates for diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of HCC metastasis with bioinformatics tools. METHODS Metastasis-related proteins were determined by stable isotope labeling and MS analysis and analyzed with bioinformatics resources, including(More)
Liver stem/progenitor cells play a key role in liver development and maybe also in liver cancer development. In our previous study a population of c-Kit-(CD45/TER119)- liver stem/progenitor cells in mouse fetal liver, was successfully sorted with large amount (10(6)-10(7)) by using immuno-magnetic microbeads. In this study, the sorted liver stem/progenitor(More)
In mammalian cells, when tandem affinity purification approach is employed, the existence of untagged endogenous target protein and repetitive washing steps together result in overall low yield of purified/stable complexes and the loss of weakly and transiently interacting partners of biological significance. To avoid the trade-offs involving in(More)
The negative signal provided by interactions of costimulatory molecules, programmed death-1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 (also B7-H1) and PD-L2 (also B7-DC), is involved in the mechanisms of tumor immune evasion. To block PD-Ls-PD-1 interactions by a soluble receptor of PD-1, we constructed a eukaryotic expression plasmid that expresses extracellular(More)