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BACKGROUND Unaided attempts to quit smoking commonly fail during the first 2 weeks of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Alterations in dopamine (DA) signaling correlate with withdrawal from chronic nicotine exposure, but those changes have not been well-characterized. METHODS Mice were administered nicotine in their drinking water for 4 or 12 weeks. Then(More)
We present the design and prototype of GnuStream, a peer-to-peer (P2P) and receiver-driven media streaming system. GnuStream is built on top of Gnutella, and it integrates dynamic peer location and streaming capacity aggregation. Each GnuStream streaming session is controlled by the receiver peer and involves a dynamic set of peer senders instead of one(More)
Tobacco smoking is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural events underlying this risk remain largely unknown. Alcohol and nicotine reinforcement involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to nicotine increases alcohol self-administration and decreases(More)
The present paper studied the effect and mechanism of neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS) on spontaneous glutamate release using electrophysiological and biochemical methods combined with a pharmacological approach. The results suggested that PREGS had a selective enhancing effect on spontaneous glutamate release in the prelimbic cortex and the(More)
Considerable evidence suggests that depression is related to interhemispheric functional coordination deficits. For depression, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most rapid and effective therapy, but its underlying mechanism remains unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ECT on the interhemispheric functional coordination in(More)
Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems play a critical role in tobacco addiction driven by nicotine. Nicotine activates midbrain DA neurons and, consequently, elevates DA concentrations in targets, especially in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the ventral striatum. The route of drug administration influences the impact of addictive drugs. Here, we examine whether(More)
Epidemiological studies consistently find correlations between nicotine and alcohol use, yet the neural mechanisms underlying their interaction remain largely unknown. Nicotine and alcohol (i.e., ethanol) share many common molecular and cellular targets that provide potential substrates for nicotine-alcohol interactions. These targets for interaction often(More)
The effect of a brief pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) convulsive seizure on rat cerebral cortical Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was investigated. By immunoblot, it was found that a single PTZ seizure, lasting less than a minute, caused translocation of CaMKII alpha-subunit (alpha-CaMKII) from the particulate to the soluble fraction for(More)
Dopamine (DA) signaling in the central nervous system mediates the addictive capacities of multiple commonly abused substances, including cocaine, amphetamine, heroin and nicotine. The firing of DA neurons residing in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the release of DA by the projections of these neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), is under tight(More)
A quantitative model of coarticulation is presented that accurately predicts formant dynamics in fluent speech using the prior information of resonance targets in the phone sequence, in absence of actual acoustic data. Realistic formant undershoot (reduction) and " static " sound confusion is produced naturally from the model for fast-rate speech in a(More)