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We present the design and prototype of GnuStream, a peer-to-peer (P2P) and receiver-driven media streaming system. GnuStream is built on top of Gnutella, and it integrates dynamic peer location and streaming capacity aggregation. Each GnuStream streaming session is controlled by the receiver peer and involves a dynamic set of peer senders instead of one(More)
Tobacco smoking is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural events underlying this risk remain largely unknown. Alcohol and nicotine reinforcement involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to nicotine increases alcohol self-administration and decreases(More)
Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) systems play a critical role in tobacco addiction driven by nicotine. Nicotine activates midbrain DA neurons and, consequently, elevates DA concentrations in targets, especially in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of the ventral striatum. The route of drug administration influences the impact of addictive drugs. Here, we examine whether(More)
Epidemiological studies consistently find correlations between nicotine and alcohol use, yet the neural mechanisms underlying their interaction remain largely unknown. Nicotine and alcohol (i.e., ethanol) share many common molecular and cellular targets that provide potential substrates for nicotine-alcohol interactions. These targets for interaction often(More)
The effect of a brief pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) convulsive seizure on rat cerebral cortical Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) was investigated. By immunoblot, it was found that a single PTZ seizure, lasting less than a minute, caused translocation of CaMKII alpha-subunit (alpha-CaMKII) from the particulate to the soluble fraction for(More)
A quantitative model of coarticulation is presented that accurately predicts formant dynamics in fluent speech using the prior information of resonance targets in the phone sequence, in absence of actual acoustic data. Realistic formant undershoot (reduction) and " static " sound confusion is produced naturally from the model for fast-rate speech in a(More)
Glutamate transmission from vestibular end organs to central vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) plays important role in transferring sensory information about head position and movements. Three isoforms of vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) have been considered so far the most specific markers for glutamatergic neurons/cells. In this study, VGLUT1 and(More)
This study evaluated the alteration of CaMKII autophosphorylation and distribution in rat brain following a single, brief pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure and during PTZ kindling. Total CaMKII alpha subunit (alpha-CaMKII) and alpha-CaMKII phosphorylated at Thr(286) were detected by immunoblot. A large decrease in CaMKII Thr(286) phosphorylation, as well as(More)
At present, due to the growing attention focused on the issue of tendon-bone healing, we carried out an animal study of the use of genetic intervention combined with cell transplantation for the promotion of this process. Here, the efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells infected with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) on tendon-bone healing was determined.(More)
We study the problem of a mobile target (the mouse) trying to evade detection by one or more mobile sensors (we call such a sensor a cat) in a closed network area. We view our problem as a game between two players: the mouse, and the collection of cats forming a single (meta-)player. The game ends when the mouse falls within the sensing range of one or more(More)