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We present the design and prototype of GnuStream, a peerto-peer (P2P) and receiver-driven media streaming system. GnuStream is built on top of Gnutella, and it integrates dynamic peer location and streaming capacity aggregation. Each GnuStream streaming session is controlled by the receiver peer and involves a dynamic set of peer senders instead of one(More)
In this paper, we propose an extension to current TCP protocol named concurrent TCP (cTCP), which can improve throughput of connections through balancing traffic load on multiple end-to-end paths. We keep the single-sliding-window architecture of TCP untouched for compatibility reasons. The two core components of the design are a packet scheduling switch(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and expression of IGF-1 and TGF-β1 in the gastrocnemius muscles of rats following contusion. Muscle regeneration involves cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation and is regulated by growth factors. A(More)
BACKGROUND Unaided attempts to quit smoking commonly fail during the first 2 weeks of the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Alterations in dopamine (DA) signaling correlate with withdrawal from chronic nicotine exposure, but those changes have not been well-characterized. METHODS Mice were administered nicotine in their drinking water for 4 or 12 weeks. Then(More)
Tobacco smoking is a well-known risk factor for subsequent alcohol abuse, but the neural events underlying this risk remain largely unknown. Alcohol and nicotine reinforcement involve common neural circuitry, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. We demonstrate in rodents that pre-exposure to nicotine increases alcohol self-administration and decreases(More)
Epidemiological studies consistently find correlations between nicotine and alcohol use, yet the neural mechanisms underlying their interaction remain largely unknown. Nicotine and alcohol (i.e., ethanol) share many common molecular and cellular targets that provide potential substrates for nicotine-alcohol interactions. These targets for interaction often(More)
The present study was aimed at investigating the expression of metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), its relationship with β-catenin, Met expression and the clinicopathological features of NPC, and its roles in carcinogenesis of NPC. Our results showed that MACC1 expression was higher in NPC cells and tissues(More)
SAMHD1 is the only known eukaryotic deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) and is a major regulator of intracellular dNTP pools. It has been reported to be a potent inhibitor of retroviruses such as HIV-1 and endogenous retrotransposons. Previous crystal structures have revealed that SAMHD1 is activated by dGTP-dependent tetramer(More)
BACKGROUND Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C gene (XPC) is a key member of nucleotide excision repair pathway and plays an important role in human DNA repair system. It is reported that several common polymorphisms of XPC are associated with susceptibility to lung cancer. However, the conclusion is still elusive. METHOD This meta-analysis was(More)
Major depression is a common long-lasting or recurrent psychiatric disease with high lifetime prevalence and high incidence of suicide. The main purpose of the current study was to verify whether liquiritigenin conferred an antidepressant-like effect on the depressive mouse model established by unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and explore its(More)