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It is generally believed that protein secretion or exocytosis is achieved via a conventional ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-Golgi-TGN (trans-Golgi network)-PM (plasma membrane) pathway in the plant endomembrane system. However, such signal peptide (SP)-dependent protein secretion cannot explain the increasing number of SP-lacking proteins which are found(More)
This paper presents a methodology for diagnostics of fixture failures in multistage manufacturing processes (MMP). The diagnostic methodology is based on the state-space model of the MMP process, which includes part fixturing layout geometry and sensor location. The state space model of the MMP characterizes the propagation of fixture fault variation along(More)
Variation propagation in a multi-station manufacturing process (MMP) is described by the theory of ''Stream of Variation.'' Given that the measurements are obtained via certain sensor distribution scheme, the problem of whether the stream of variation of an MMP is diagnosable is of great interest to both academia and industry. We present a comprehensive(More)
Methylphenidate is the most commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of ADHD. We have used positron emission tomography to assess the role that methylphenidate's effects in brain dopamine have on its therapeutic and reinforcing effects. We have documented that in the human brain therapeutic doses of methylphenidate block more than 50% of the dopamine(More)
This two-part paper focuses on the modeling and diagnosis of multistage manufacturing processes. Part I develops a state space model characterizing variation propagation in a multistage process. The state space model describes a discrete-time LTV (Linear Time Varying) stochastic system, which strongly indicates that the existing system and control theory(More)
Development of chronic pain involves alterations in peripheral nociceptors as well as elevated neuronal activity in multiple regions of the CNS. Previous pharmacological and behavioral studies suggest that peripheral acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) contribute to pain sensation, and the expression of ASIC subunits is elevated in the rat spinal dorsal horn(More)
The exocyst protein complex mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. By expressing an (X)FP-tagged Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of the exocyst protein Exo70 in suspension-cultured Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells, and using antibodies specific for Exo70, we detected a compartment, which we term EXPO (for exocyst positive(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are toxic by-products generated continuously during seed desiccation, storage, and germination, resulting in seed deterioration and therefore decreased seed longevity. The toxicity of ROS is due to their indiscriminate reactivity with almost any constituent of the cell, such as lipids, proteins, and DNA. The damage to the(More)
As in yeast and mammalian cells, novel unconventional protein secretion (UPS) or unconventional membrane trafficking pathways are now known to operate in plants. UPS in plants is generally associated with stress conditions such as pathogen attack, but little is known about its underlying mechanism and function. Here, we present an update on the current(More)