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PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) is a phosphatase that dephosphorylates both protein and phosphoinositide substrates. It is mutated in a variety of human tumours and has important roles in a diverse range of biological processes, including cell migration and chemotaxis. PTEN's intracellular localization and presumably activity are regulated by(More)
Development of chronic pain involves alterations in peripheral nociceptors as well as elevated neuronal activity in multiple regions of the CNS. Previous pharmacological and behavioral studies suggest that peripheral acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) contribute to pain sensation, and the expression of ASIC subunits is elevated in the rat spinal dorsal horn(More)
It is generally believed that protein secretion or exocytosis is achieved via a conventional ER (endoplasmic reticulum)-Golgi-TGN (trans-Golgi network)-PM (plasma membrane) pathway in the plant endomembrane system. However, such signal peptide (SP)-dependent protein secretion cannot explain the increasing number of SP-lacking proteins which are found(More)
The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) are coreceptors for Frizzled and transmit signals from the plasma membrane to the cytosol. However, the mechanism for LRP5/6 signal transmission remains undefined. Here, we identify cytoplasmic activation/proliferation-associated protein 2 (Caprin-2) as a LRP5/6-binding protein. Our data(More)
Essential hypertension (EH) is a frequent, chronic, age-related disorder, which remains a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease despite important advances in our understanding of its pathophysiology. Previous studies have noted a consistent maternal effect on blood pressure (BP). Consequently, mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have(More)
The exocyst protein complex mediates vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane. By expressing an (X)FP-tagged Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of the exocyst protein Exo70 in suspension-cultured Arabidopsis and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells, and using antibodies specific for Exo70, we detected a compartment, which we term EXPO (for exocyst positive(More)
PURPOSE Epithelial wound healing is, at least in part, mediated in an autocrine fashion by epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR)-ligand interactions. This study sought to identify the endogenous EGFR ligand and the mechanism by which it is generated in response to wounding in cultured porcine corneas and human corneal epithelial cells. METHODS(More)
In this report, we investigated the frequency and spectrum of mitochondrial 12S rRNA variants in a large cohort of 1642 Han Chinese pediatric subjects with aminoglycoside-induced and nonsyndromic hearing loss. Mutational analysis of 12S rRNA gene in these subjects identified 68 (54 known and 14 novel) variants. The frequencies of known 1555A>G and 1494C>T(More)
AIMS To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of odanacatib (ODN), a cathepsin K inhibitor, in humans. METHODS Two double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, single oral dose studies were performed with ODN (2-600 mg) in 44 healthy volunteers (36 men and eight postmenopausal women). RESULTS Adverse experiences (AEs)(More)
As in yeast and mammalian cells, novel unconventional protein secretion (UPS) or unconventional membrane trafficking pathways are now known to operate in plants. UPS in plants is generally associated with stress conditions such as pathogen attack, but little is known about its underlying mechanism and function. Here, we present an update on the current(More)