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BACKGROUND All-trans retinoic acid (RA), the oxidative metabolite of vitamin A, is essential for normal development. In addition, high levels of RA are teratogenic in many species. We have previously shown that excess RA results in immediate effects on the preimplantation embryo and on blastocyst development. This study was conducted to clarify the(More)
Tongue diagnosis is crucial to the inspection diagnosis in Chinese Medicine. Clinically, doctors mostly rely on their own knowledge and experience when determining major lesions of a patient by observing the coloration, overall modalities, and volume of sputum of different parts of the tongue. The subjective determination is likely to be affected by the(More)
BACKGROUND There are several causes of ST-segment elevation (STE) besides acute myocardial infarction (MI). OBJECTIVES We design this study to determine the prevalence, etiology, clinical manifestation, electrocardiographic characteristics, and outcome in patients with false-positive STEMI. METHODS This is a retrospective case-control study design. At(More)
Although all-trans retinoic acid (RA), the oxidative metabolite of vitamin A, is essential for normal development, high levels are teratogenic in many species. RA results in immediate effects on the preimplantation embryo and on blastocyst development in vitro and in vivo. To further elucidate the cellular mechanisms of early postimplantation embryo(More)
Adaptive divergence driven by environmental heterogeneity has long been a fascinating topic in ecology and evolutionary biology. The study of the genetic basis of adaptive divergence has, however, been greatly hampered by a lack of genomic information. The recent development of transcriptome sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to generate large(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Intermittent hypoxia (IH) may exert pre-conditioning-like cardioprotective effects and alter Ca(2+) regulation; however, the exact mechanism of these effects remains unclear. Thus, we examined Ca(2+)-handling mechanisms induced by IH in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. METHODS Cardiomyocytes were exposed to repetitive hypoxia-re-oxygenation(More)
Parasites may, in multi-parasite systems, block the defenses of their hosts and thus thwart host recognition of parasites by frequency-dependent selection. Nest defenses as frontline may block or promote the subsequent stage of defenses such as egg recognition. We conducted comparative studies of the defensive strategies of a host of the Oriental cuckoo(More)
The niche variation hypothesis (NVH) predicts that populations with wider niches are phenotypically more variable than populations with narrower niches, which is frequently used to explain diversifying processes such as ecological release. However, not all empirical evidence supports the NVH. Furthermore, a relationship between population phenotypic(More)