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This paper presents a predictive model for the negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) of PMOS under both short term and long term operation. Based on the reaction-diffusion (R-D) mechanism, this model accurately captures the dependence of NBTI on the oxide thickness (t<sub>ox</sub>), the diffusing species (H or H<sub>2</sub>) and other key transistor(More)
Negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) has become the dominant reliability concern for nanoscale PMOS transistors. In this paper, a predictive model is developed for the degradation of NBTI in both static and dynamic operations. Model scalability and generality are comprehensively verified with experimental data over a wide range of process and bias(More)
We describe the isolation and characterization of Drosophila synaptojanin (synj) mutants. synj encodes a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We show that Synj is specifically localized to presynaptic terminals and is associated with synaptic vesicles. The electrophysiological and ultrastructural defects observed in(More)
Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI) is the leading factor of circuit performance degradation. Due to its complex dependence on operating conditions, especially signal probability, it is a tremendous challenge to accurately predict the degradation rate in reality. On the other hand, we demonstrate in this work that it is feasible to reliably predict(More)
Suppressing the leakage current in memories is critical in low-power design. By reducing the standby supply voltage (V DD) to its limit, which is the Data Retention Voltage (DRV), leakage power can be substantially reduced. This paper explores how low DRV can be in a standard low leakage SRAM module and analyzes how DRV is affected by parameters such as(More)
Wallerian degeneration refers to a loss of the distal part of an axon after nerve injury. Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) mice overexpress a chimeric protein containing the NAD synthase NMNAT (nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1) and exhibit a delay in axonal degeneration. Currently, conflicting evidence raises questions as to whether(More)
Although rod and cone photoreceptor cells in the vertebrate retina are anatomically connected or coupled by gap junctions, a type of electrical synapse, rod-cone electrical coupling is thought to be weak. Using tracer labeling and electrical recording in the goldfish retina and tracer labeling in the mouse retina, we show that the retinal circadian clock,(More)