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Twelve microsatellites were used to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of eight wild populations of grass carp, among which six populations from Yangtze River (Hanjiang, Wujian, Jiujiang, Shishou, Mudong, and Wanzhou), one population from Pearl River and Heilongjiang River for each, Zhaoqing, and Nenjiang, respectively. Twelve markers(More)
Relative quantification is the strategy of choice for processing real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) data in microRNA (miRNA) expression studies. Normalization of relative quantification data is performed by comparison to reference genes. In teleost species, such as grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), the(More)
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are the primary inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tissues. In this study, a TIMP-2 gene was isolated from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (CiTIMP-2b) and characterized. This cDNA sequence encoded a signal peptide, N- and C-terminal domains. CiTIMP-2b is highly homologous to the orthologous(More)
The complement system, as a representative of innate immunity, plays a key role in the host defense against infections. C6 is the member of complement components creating the membrane attack complex (MAC). In this study, we cloned and characterized the grass carp complement component C6 (gcC6) gene. Our data showed that gcC6 gene contained a 2724bp open(More)
HSP60 is a highly immunogenic molecule, which is able to activate a large number of T cell types and is implicated in a variety of autoimmune diseases. The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), a freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, accounts for the third biggest value (USD 4.8 billion) at single species level of major cultured fish species in(More)
The gene encoding matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) was cloned from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and its expression levels during Aeromonas hydrophila infection and embryonic development stages were evaluated. The complete open reading frame of CiMMP2 was 1974 bp in length, encoding a 658-amino acid polypeptide. The deduced MMP2 protein contained(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) belongs to a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases and is associated with vital inflammatory processes. Here, we isolated and characterized MMP-9 cDNA from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) (designated as CiMMP-9). The cDNA was 2880 bp long and encoded a putative protein of 675 amino acids, with a predicted molecular(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in numerous biological processes. However, the role of miRNAs in antibacterial defence in fish has not been fully determined. Here, we identified that nine miRNAs are differentially expressed in kidney between susceptible and resistant grass carp strains. Analysis of spatial and(More)
Rac1, a Rho GTPase, serves critical immunological functions in mammals. Here, a Rac1 homolog (gcRac1) was identified in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The full-length 2023-base pair gcRac1 cDNA contained a 579-bp open reading frame encoding a 192-residue protein, including a conserved RHO domain and nuclear localization signal. The gcRac1 protein(More)
The mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1) gene is a crucial component of the lectin pathway in the complement and coagulation cascade. Although MASP-1 has been found in the immune system of teleosts, its immune functions in response to bacterial infection are unclear. In this study, we identified a MASP-1 homolog (gcMASP-1) in the(More)
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