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BACKGROUND Phytoestogens are a group of lipophillic plant compounds that can have estrogenic effects in animals; both tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic effects have been reported. Prolactin-secreting adenomas are the most prevalent form of pituitary tumors in humans and have been linked to estrogen exposures. We examined the proliferative effects of(More)
Xenoestrogens can affect the healthy functioning of a variety of tissues by acting as potent estrogens via nongenomic signaling pathways or by interfering with those actions of multiple physiological estrogens. Collectively, our and other studies have compared a wide range of estrogenic compounds, including some closely structurally related subgroups. The(More)
BACKGROUND Estradiol (E2) mediates various intracellular signaling cascades from the plasma membrane via several estrogen receptors (ERs). The pituitary is an estrogen-responsive tissue, and we have previously reported that E2 can activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as ERK1/2 and JNK1/2/3 in the membrane ERalpha (mERalpha)-enriched(More)
BACKGROUND Xenoestrogens such as alkylphenols and the structurally related plastic byproduct bisphenol A have recently been shown to act potently via nongenomic signaling pathways and the membrane version of estrogen receptor-α. Though the responses to these compounds are typically measured individually, they usually contaminate organisms that already have(More)
Xenoestrogens (XEs) are chemicals derived from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources that can interfere with endogenous estrogens by either mimicking or blocking their responses via non-genomic and/or genomic signaling mechanisms. Disruption of estrogens' actions through the less-studied non-genomic pathway can alter such functional end points as(More)
BACKGROUND Alkylphenols varying in their side-chain lengths [ethyl-, propyl-, octyl-, and nonylphenol (EP, PP, OP, and NP, respectively)] and bisphenol A (BPA) represent a large group of structurally related xenoestrogens that have endocrine-disruptive effects. Their rapid nongenomic effects that depend on structure for cell signaling and resulting(More)
Gender and sex hormones can influence a variety of mental health states, including mood, cognitive development and function, and vulnerability to neurodegenerative diseases and brain damage. Functions of neuronal cells may be altered by estrogens depending upon the availability of different physiological estrogenic ligands; these ligands and their effects(More)
BACKGROUND Estrogens are potent nongenomic phospho-activators of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). A major concern about the toxicity of xenoestrogens (XEs) is potential alteration of responses to physiologic estrogens when XEs are present simultaneously. OBJECTIVES We examined estrogen-induced ERK activation, comparing the abilities of(More)
gamma-Adaptin and clathrin heavy chain were identified on tubulovesicles of gastric oxyntic cells with the anti-gamma-adaptin monoclonal antibody (MAb) 100/3 and an anti-clathrin heavy chain MAb (MAb 23), respectively. In Western blots, crude gastric microsomes from rabbit and rat and density gradient-purified, H-K-ATPase-rich microsomes from these same(More)
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (Sph-1-P), a product of sphingomyelin metabolism, can act via a family of cognate G protein-coupled receptors or as an intracellular second messenger for agonists acting through their membrane receptors. In view of the general growth promoting and developmental effects of Sph-1-P on target cells, we hypothesized that it plays a role(More)