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Parkinson's disease is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We have previously reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons is mediated by the release of proinflammatory factors from activated microglia. Here, we report the pivotal role of NADPH oxidase in(More)
The etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown. Increasing evidence has suggested a role for inflammation in the brain in the pathogenesis of PD. However, it has not been clearly demonstrated whether microglial activation, the most integral part of the brain inflammatory process, will result in a delayed and progressive degeneration of(More)
Increasing evidence has suggested an important role for environmental factors such as exposure to pesticides in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. In experimental animals the exposure to a common herbicide, rotenone, induces features of parkinsonism; mechanistically, rotenone-induced destruction of dopaminergic neurons has been attributed to its(More)
We introduce Ternary Weight Networks (TWNs) neural networks with weights constrained to +1, 0 and -1. The L2 distance between the full (float or double) precision weights and the ternary weights along with a scaling factor is minimized. With the optimization, the TWNs own high capacity of model expression that is good enough to approximate the Full(More)
Resting-state networks dissociate in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in AD brain is vulnerable to isolation from the rest of brain. However, it remains unclear how this functional connectivity is related to PCC changes. We employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine brain regions with a(More)
The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a redox-active transcription factor that organizes and directs cellular responses in the face of a variety of stresses that lead to genomic instability. One of the most important questions in the study of p53 is how selective transactivation of certain p53 target genes is achieved. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated(More)
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV1) in which the neurovirulence factor ICP34.5 is inactivated has been shown to direct tumour-specific cell lysis in several tumour models. Such viruses have also been shown to be safe in Phase I clinical trials by intra-tumoral injection in glioma and melanoma patients. Previous work has used serially passaged laboratory(More)
Increasing evidence has suggested an important role for environmental toxins such as pesticides in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Chronic exposure to rotenone, a common herbicide, reproduces features of Parkinsonism in rats. Mechanistically, rotenone-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration has been associated with both its inhibition of(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder that is characterized by progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Although dopamine replacement can alleviate symptoms of the disorder, there is no proven therapy to halt the underlying progressive degeneration of dopamine-containing neurons. Recently, increasing evidence from human and(More)
We determined the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia. LPS treatment increased intracellular ROS in rat microglia dose-dependently. Pre-treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase, or SOD/catalase mimetics(More)