Youwen Xu

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CONTEXT Modafinil, a wake-promoting drug used to treat narcolepsy, is increasingly being used as a cognitive enhancer. Although initially launched as distinct from stimulants that increase extracellular dopamine by targeting dopamine transporters, recent preclinical studies suggest otherwise. OBJECTIVE To measure the acute effects of modafinil at doses(More)
Methamphetamine is one of the most addictive and neurotoxic drugs of abuse. It produces large elevations in extracellular dopamine in the striatum through vesicular release and inhibition of the dopamine transporter. In the U.S. abuse prevalence varies by ethnicity with very low abuse among African Americans relative to Caucasians, differentiating it from(More)
Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition, and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-(11)C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer(More)
UNLABELLED Smokers have reduced levels of brain monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) leading to speculation that MAO A inhibition by tobacco smoke may underlie some of the neurophysiologic effects of smoking. Because smoking exposes peripheral organs as well as the brain to MAO A-inhibitory compounds, we determined whether smokers would also have reduced MAO A in(More)
Salvia divinorum, a mint plant originally used by the Mazatecs of Oaxaca, Mexico in spiritual rituals has gained popularity, in smoked form, as a legal hallucinogen in the United States and Europe. Abuse results in rapid onset and short-lasting effects that include visual hallucinations and motor-function impairment. Salvinorin A, the psychoactive component(More)
UNLABELLED Results from human studies with the PET radiotracer (S,S)-[(11)C]O-methyl reboxetine ([(11)C](S,S)-MRB), a ligand targeting the norepinephrine transporter (NET), are reported. Quantification methods were determined from test/retest studies, and sensitivity to pharmacological blockade was tested with different doses of atomoxetine (ATX), a drug(More)
Metergoline, a serotonin receptor antagonist, was labeled with carbon-11 in order to evaluate its pharmacokinetics and distribution in non-human primates using positron emission tomography. [(11)C]Metergoline had moderate brain uptake and exhibited heterogeneous specific binding, which was blocked by pretreatment with metergoline and altanserin throughout(More)
The aim of this work was to quantify the brain distribution of the enzyme aromatase in the female baboon with positron emission tomography and the tracer [11C]vorozole using three different quantification methods for estimating the total distribution volume (V(T)): a graphical method, compartment modeling, and a tissue to plasma ratio. The graphical model(More)
The preclinical characterization of a series of aryloxypyridine amides has identified JNJ-39220675 ((4-cyclobutyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)(6-(4-fluorophenoxy)pyridin-3-yl)methanone) as a high-affinity histamine H3 receptor antagonist and a candidate for further drug development particularly in the treatment of alcohol-related behaviors. This study measured brain(More)
Selegiline (L-deprenyl) is a selective, irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) at the conventional dose (10 mg/day oral) that is used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, controlled studies have demonstrated antidepressant activity for high doses of oral selegiline and for transdermal selegiline suggesting that when plasma levels(More)