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The resetting of a somatic epigenotype to a totipotential state has been demonstrated by successful animal cloning, via transplantation of somatic nuclei into enucleated oocytes. We have established an experimental system, which reproduces the nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells in vitro by fusing adult thymocytes with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Analysis(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) in the thymus (tDCs) are predominantly accumulated in the medulla and contribute to the establishment of self-tolerance. However, how the medullary accumulation of tDCs is regulated and involved in self-tolerance is unclear. We show that the chemokine receptor XCR1 is expressed by tDCs, whereas medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs)(More)
The IAN (immune-associated nucleotide-binding protein) family is a family of functionally uncharacterized GTP-binding proteins expressed in vertebrate immune cells and in plant cells during antibacterial responses. Here we show that all eight IAN family genes encoded in a single cluster of mouse genome are predominantly expressed in lymphocytes, and that(More)
T lymphocyte development requires a series of interactions between developing thymocytes and thymic epithelial (TE) cells. In this paper we show that TE cells in the developing thymus express Pref-1, a Delta-like cell-surface molecule. In fetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC), thymocyte cellularity was increased by the exogenous dimeric Pref-1 fusion protein,(More)
Proteasomes are responsible for generating peptides presented by the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of the immune system. Here, we report the identification of a previously unrecognized catalytic subunit called beta5t. beta5t is expressed exclusively in cortical thymic epithelial cells, which are responsible for the positive(More)
Lympho-stromal interactions in multiple microenvironments within the thymus have a crucial role in the regulation of T-cell development and selection. Recent studies have implicated that chemokines that are produced by thymic stromal cells have a pivotal role in positioning developing T cells within the thymus. In this Review, I discuss the importance of(More)
Upon TCR-mediated positive selection, developing thymocytes relocate within the thymus from the cortex to the medulla for further differentiation and selection. However, it is unknown how this cortex-medulla migration of thymocytes is controlled and how it controls T cell development. Here we show that in mice deficient for CCR7 or its ligands mature(More)
CD4+CD8+ thymocytes expressing self-reactive T cell antigen receptors (TCR) are deleted in the thymus as a consequence of TCR/self-antigen/major histocompatibility complex interactions. However, the signals that are necessary to initiate clonal deletion have not yet been clarified. Here we demonstrate that TCR engagement does not efficiently induce(More)
The thymic medulla provides a specialized microenvironment for the negative selection of T cells, with the presence of autoimmune regulator (Aire)-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) during the embryonic-neonatal period being both necessary and sufficient to establish long-lasting tolerance. Here we showed that emergence of the first(More)
During embryonic development, T-lymphoid precursor cells colonize the thymus. Chemoattraction by the fetal thymus is thought to mediate T-precursor cell colonization. However, the molecules that attract T-precursor cells to the thymus remain unclear. By devising time-lapse visualization in culture, the present results show that alymphoid fetal thymus lobes(More)