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The IAN (immune-associated nucleotide-binding protein) family is a family of functionally uncharacterized GTP-binding proteins expressed in vertebrate immune cells and in plant cells during antibacterial responses. Here we show that all eight IAN family genes encoded in a single cluster of mouse genome are predominantly expressed in lymphocytes, and that(More)
The resetting of a somatic epigenotype to a totipotential state has been demonstrated by successful animal cloning, via transplantation of somatic nuclei into enucleated oocytes. We have established an experimental system, which reproduces the nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells in vitro by fusing adult thymocytes with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Analysis(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) in the thymus (tDCs) are predominantly accumulated in the medulla and contribute to the establishment of self-tolerance. However, how the medullary accumulation of tDCs is regulated and involved in self-tolerance is unclear. We show that the chemokine receptor XCR1 is expressed by tDCs, whereas medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs)(More)
Upon TCR-mediated positive selection, developing thymocytes relocate within the thymus from the cortex to the medulla for further differentiation and selection. However, it is unknown how this cortex-medulla migration of thymocytes is controlled and how it controls T cell development. Here we show that in mice deficient for CCR7 or its ligands mature(More)
CD4+CD8+ thymocytes expressing self-reactive T cell antigen receptors (TCR) are deleted in the thymus as a consequence of TCR/self-antigen/major histocompatibility complex interactions. However, the signals that are necessary to initiate clonal deletion have not yet been clarified. Here we demonstrate that TCR engagement does not efficiently induce(More)
The thymic medulla provides a specialized microenvironment for the negative selection of T cells, with the presence of autoimmune regulator (Aire)-expressing medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) during the embryonic-neonatal period being both necessary and sufficient to establish long-lasting tolerance. Here we showed that emergence of the first(More)
The interrelation between the tongue volume and the lower dental arch sizes (arch width and area) was studied by the original methods that we developed. A plane perpendicular to the occlusal plane and 40 mm posterior to the lower incisal point was taken as the posterior border of the tongue and the arch. The tongue volume and the lower dental arch sizes(More)
A large-scale mutagenesis screen was performed in Medaka to identify genes acting in diverse developmental processes. Mutations were identified in homozygous F3 progeny derived from ENU-treated founder males. In addition to the morphological inspection of live embryos, other approaches were used to detect abnormalities in organogenesis and in specific(More)
The metameric structure of the vertebrate trunk is generated by repeated formation of somites from the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm (PSM). We report the initial characterization of nine different mutants affecting segmentation that were isolated in a large-scale mutagenesis screen in Medaka (Oryzias latipes). Four mutants were identified that show a(More)
Proteasomes are responsible for generating peptides presented by the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules of the immune system. Here, we report the identification of a previously unrecognized catalytic subunit called beta5t. beta5t is expressed exclusively in cortical thymic epithelial cells, which are responsible for the positive(More)