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— The anisotropic and active properties of the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbers significantly deteriorate the finite-element method (FEM) system condition and as a result, convergence of the iterative solver is substantially affected. To address this issue, we examine the generalized minimal residual (GMRES) solver for solving finite-element systems(More)
The efficient capture and storage of gaseous CO(2) is a pressing environmental problem. Although porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been shown to be very effective at adsorbing CO(2) selectively by dint of dipole-quadruple interactions and/or ligation to open metal sites, the gas is not usually trapped covalently. Furthermore, the vast majority of(More)
The binding of alkali and alkaline earth metal cations by macrocyclic and diazamacrobicyclic polyethers, composed of ordered arrays of hard oxygen (and nitrogen) donor atoms, underpinned the development of host-guest supramolecular chemistry in the 1970s and 1980s. The arrangement of -OCCO- and -OCCN- chelating units in these preorganized receptors,(More)
Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes have emerged both as promising probes of DNA structure and as anticancer agents because of their unique photophysical and cytotoxic properties. A key consideration in the administration of those therapeutic agents is the optimization of their chemical reactivities to allow facile attack on the target sites, yet avoid(More)
Manipulating and controlling the self-organisation of small collections of molecules, as an alternative to investigating individual molecules, has motivated researchers bent on processing and storing information in molecular electronic devices (MEDs). Although numerous ingenious examples of single-molecule devices have provided fundamental insights into(More)
A new methodology for focusing ultrasonic beams noninvasively in the presence of the rib cage is investigated. This investigation is motivated by the need to employ high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) using phased array applicators for the treatment of liver tumors partially shadowed by the rib obstacles. This approach enables us to efficiently perform(More)
A computationally efficient hybrid ray-physical optics (HRPO) model is presented for the analysis and synthesis of multiple-focus ultrasound heating patterns through the human rib cage. In particular, a ray method is used to propagate the ultrasound fields from the source to the frontal plane of the rib cage. The physical-optics integration method is then(More)
Most organic radicals possess short lifetimes and quickly undergo dimerization or oxidation. Here, we report on the synthesis by radical templation of a class of air- and water-stable organic radicals, trapped within a homo[2]catenane composed of two rigid and fixed cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings. The highly energetic octacationic homo[2]catenane,(More)
Motor molecules present in nature convert energy inputs, such as a chemical fuel or incident photons of light, into directed motion and force biochemical systems away from thermal equilibrium. The ability not only to control relative movements of components in molecules but also to drive their components preferentially in one direction relative to each(More)