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Trimethylation on histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) by Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) regulates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). The mechanisms controlling the activity and recruitment of PRC2 are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the founding member of the Jumonji family, JMJ (JUMONJI or(More)
The ABC superfamily comprises both membrane-bound transporters and soluble proteins involved in a broad range of processes, many of which are of considerable agricultural, biotechnological and medical potential. Completion of the Arabidopsis and rice genome sequences has revealed a particularly large and diverse complement of plant ABC proteins in(More)
AtATM3, an ATP-binding cassette transporter of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is a mitochondrial protein involved in the biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters and iron homeostasis in plants. Our gene expression analysis showed that AtATM3 is up-regulated in roots of plants treated with cadmium [Cd(II)] or lead (II); hence, we investigated whether this(More)
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains about 130 ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, which are likely to contribute to the transport of diverse materials, including toxic substances. However, the substrates of ABC transporters remain unknown in most cases. We tested which ABC transporter is involved in detoxification of lead [Pb(II)]. Among the many(More)
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) metabolism plays a central role in signaling pathways in both animals and higher plants. Stomatal guard cells have been reported to contain PI 3-phosphate (PI3P) and PI 4-phosphate (PI4P), the products of PI 3-kinase (PI3K) and PI 4-kinase (PI4K) activities. In this study, we tested the roles of PI3P and PI4P in stomatal movements.(More)
Uptake and translocation of metal nutrients are essential processes for plant growth. Graminaceous species release phytosiderophores that bind to Fe(3+); these complexes are then transported across the plasma membrane. We have characterized OsYSL15, one of the rice (Oryza sativa) YS1-like (YSL) genes that are strongly induced by iron (Fe) deficiency. The(More)
Human embryonic stem (hES) cells can differentiate in vitro, forming embryoid bodies (EBs) composed of derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. Spontaneously contracting outgrowths from these EBs contain cardiomyocytes (CMs); however, the types of human CMs and their functional properties are unknown. This study characterizes the contractions and(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a ubiquitous phytohormone involved in many developmental processes and stress responses of plants. ABA moves within the plant, and intracellular receptors for ABA have been recently identified; however, no ABA transporter has been described to date. Here, we report the identification of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter(More)
Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are widespread pollutants that are toxic to plant growth. The expression of AtPDR8 was upregulated in cadmium- or lead-treated Arabidopsis thaliana. To test whether AtPDR8 is involved in heavy metal resistance, we examined transgenic Arabidopsis that over-expressed AtPDR8 and RNAi plants that exhibited a severely reduced AtPDR8(More)
In plants, malate is a central metabolite and fulfills a large number of functions. Vacuolar malate may reach very high concentrations and fluctuate rapidly, whereas cytosolic malate is kept at a constant level allowing optimal metabolism. Recently, a vacuolar malate transporter (Arabidopsis thaliana tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter, AttDT) was(More)