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Understanding the molecular mechanisms through which CD22 regulates B lymphocyte homeostasis, signal transduction, and tolerance is critical to defining normal B cell function and understanding the role of CD22 in autoimmunity. Therefore, CD22 function was examined in vivo and in vitro using B cells from CD22-deficient (CD22(-/-)) mice. Backcrossing of(More)
Osteoclasts differentiate from precursor cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and subsequently become activated to be competent for bone resorption through programs primarily governed by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand in cooperation with macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Proteins prominently expressed at late phases of(More)
Teraspanin transmembrane protein, Perp (P53 apoptosis effector related to PMP22), which is found in the plasma membrane as a component of the desmosome, is reported to be involved in the morphogenesis of the epithelium and the enamel formation of the incisor. However, its expression pattern and signaling regulation during molar development have not been(More)
The precise regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics is crucial for proper differentiation and function of osteoclasts. Here we show the involvement of plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) isoforms 1 and 4 in osteoclastogenesis. In immature/undifferentiated cells, PMCAs inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced Ca(2+) oscillations and osteoclast(More)
Adenomatosis polyposis coli downregulated 1 (APCDD1), a negative regulator of Wnt signaling, was examined to understand detailed mechanisms underlying Wnt signaling tooth development. In situ hybridization showed that Apcdd1 was expressed in the condensed mesenchyme at the bud stage, and in the inner enamel epithelium (IEE), including enamel knot (EK) at(More)
After palatal fusion, the dorsal and ventral epithelia of the palatal shelf differentiate into the nasal and oral mucosa, respectively. The tissue-specific differentiation of palatal epithelia along the dorsal–ventral axis is regulated by the signaling molecules expressed in the underlying mesenchyme. Thus, as in many other epithelial organs,(More)
The current procedure of estimating accident reduction benefit applies fixed accident rates for each road level. So that estimating accident reduction benefit is not considering the various characteristics of roadway geometries and traffics. In order to solve the problems mentioned in the above, models were developed considering the characteristics of(More)
Occlusal alignment is known clinically to have a widespread influence on the stomatognathic system, including the temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscles. However, while occlusion is still an important determinant of most dental treatments, the exact effect of occlusal alignment is unclear because of a lack of conclusive scientific evidence. In this(More)
An in vitro culture model enabling posterior capsule opacification (PCO) to be investigated was developed and established by using low-melting-point (LMP)-agarose gel to support the capsular bag. After removal of the cornea from rodent and porcine eyeballs, the lens zonules were dissected. Whole lens explants were embedded into 2 % (37 °C) LMP-agarose gel(More)
Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease caused by complex interaction between the microbial biofilm and host immune responses. In the present study, high-throughput RNA sequencing was utilized to systemically and precisely identify gene expression profiles and alternative splicing. The pooled RNAs of 10 gingival tissues from both(More)