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Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by core psychiatric symptoms, including positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Current treatments for schizophrenia have an effect on positive symptoms but have a limited efficacy on negative or cognitive symptoms. Oleanolic acid is a plant-derived pentacyclic terpenoid that is(More)
Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment associated with the disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of α- or β-amyrin, a type of pentacyclic triterpene, on the cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine(More)
In our previous study, we demonstrated that nodakenin, a coumarin compound isolated from Angelica decursiva, ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nodakenin on the cognitive function in the normal naïve mice in a passive avoidance task, and the results showed that nodakenin(More)
5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (5-HMF) is a compound derived from the dehydration of certain sugars. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 5-HMF on the cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. To measure various cognitive functions, we conducted the step-through passive avoidance task, the Y-maze(More)
Adult neurogenesis has received much attention due to its potential role in neurological or psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we examined whether spinosin, a C-glycoside flavonoid from the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa, affects cognitive performance and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in normal naïve mice. The(More)
Recent advances in 3D culture systems have led to the generation of brain organoids that resemble different human brain regions; however, a 3D organoid model of the midbrain containing functional midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons has not been reported. We developed a method to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells into a large multicellular(More)
It is well known that the hippocampus plays a role in spatial and contextual memory, and that spatial information is tightly regulated by the hippocampus. However, it is still highly controversial whether the hippocampus plays a role in object recognition memory. In a pilot study, the administration of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, enhanced(More)
Swertisin, a C-glucosylflavone isolated from Swertia japonica, has been known to have anti-inflammatory or antidiabetic activities. Until yet, however, its cognitive function is not investigated. In the present study, we endeavored to elucidate the effects of swertisin on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment. Swertisin (5 or 10mg/kg, p.o.)(More)
Memory consolidation is an important process for the formation of long-term memory. We have previously reported that mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances memory consolidation within 9h after initial learning. Recent studies suggest that insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) significantly enhances memory consolidation and prevents forgetting.(More)