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Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) produces an approximately 20-kDa heat-labile enterotoxin (BFT) that plays an essential role in mucosal inflammation. Although spontaneous disappearance of ETBF infection is common, little information is available on regulated expression of antibacterial factors in response to BFT stimulation. This study(More)
Displaced unstable distal third fractures of the humeral diaphysis are treated surgically through open reduction and internal fixation. Conventionally, surgeons prefer using long plates for secure fixation; however, we performed short plate dual plating for robust fixation that required a smaller incision and less dissection through an anterior approach. In(More)
Although Helicobacter pylori infections of the gastric mucosa are characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory cells such as eosinophils, the responses of eosinophils to H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) have not been fully elucidated. This study investigates the role of VacA in the apoptosis of human eosinophils. We treated human eosinophils with(More)
In this paper, we fabricated a fluorinated organic-inorganic hybrid mold using a nonhydrolytic sol-gel process which can produce a crack-free mold without leaving any trace of solvent. No special chemical treatment of a release layer is needed because the fluorinated hybrid mold has fluorine molecules in the backbone. The other advantages of the hybrid mold(More)
Two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) diamond-like carbon (DLC) stamps for ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography were fabricated with two methods: namely, a DLC coating process, followed by focused ion beam lithography; and two-photon polymerization patterning, followed by nanoscale-thick DLC coating. We used focused ion beam lithography to(More)
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