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Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are retained in the organelle or retrotranslocated to the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. ER chaperones that guide these opposing processes are largely unknown. We developed a semipermeabilized cell system to study the retrotranslocation of cholera toxin (CT), a toxic agent that crosses the ER(More)
Secretion of thyroglobulin (Tg, a large homodimeric glycoprotein) is essential to deliver Tg to its site of iodination for thyroxine biosynthesis. An L2263P missense mutation in Tg has been proposed as the molecular defect causing congenital goitrous hypothyroidism in cog/cog mice due to perturbed Tg homodimerization, resulting in its retention within the(More)
Relatively few clues have been uncovered to elucidate the cell biological role(s) of mammalian ATP2C1 encoding an inwardly directed secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+ pump that is ubiquitously expressed. Deficiency of ATP2C1 results in a human disease (Hailey-Hailey), which primarily affects keratinocytes. ATP2C1-encoded protein is detected in the Golgi complex in(More)
We present the first identification of transient folding intermediates of endogenous thyroglobulin (Tg; a large homodimeric secretory glycoprotein of thyrocytes), which include mixed disulfides with endogenous oxidoreductases servicing Tg folding needs. Formation of disulfide-linked Tg adducts with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductases begins(More)
Insect cell culture has greatly increased in part due to the widespread use of insect virus-based vectors for efficient expression of foreign proteins. Insect cells such as Sf9 cells are susceptible to arboviruses which may pose a safety concern by adventitious introduction during the production process. The objective of this study was to establish(More)
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