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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease which is caused by degeneration of motor neurons in the central nervous system. The incidence of ALS is higher in men than women, but the female advantage disappears with increased age. Here, we report evidence that the female advantage is due to the protective role of estrogen. In an ALS mouse(More)
Reelin, an extracellular glycoprotein has an important role in the proper migration and positioning of neurons during brain development. Lack of reelin causes not only disorganized lamination of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex but also malpositioning of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. However, the accurate role of reelin in the migration and(More)
The sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) plays a key role in regulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. In this study we investigated the mechanism for tissue-specific expression of the SUR1 gene. A -138/-20 fragment exhibited basal promoter activity while the -660/-20 fragment contained a regulatory element for tissue-specific expression of the(More)
Neurofibrillary tangles comprised of highly phosphorylated tau proteins are a key component of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Mice lacking Reelin (Reln), double-knockouts lacking the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) and ApoE receptor2 (ApoER2), and mice lacking disabled-1 (Dab1) display increased levels of phosphorylated tau. Because Reln binds to recombinant ApoE(More)
CREB mediates the transcriptional effects of glucose and incretin hormones in insulin-target cells and insulin-producing β-cells. Although the inhibition of CREB activity is known to decrease the β-cell mass, it is still unknown what factors inversely alter the CREB signaling pathway in β-cells. Here, we show that β-cell dysfunctions occurring in chronic(More)
The memory reconsolidation hypothesis suggests that a memory trace becomes labile after retrieval and needs to be reconsolidated before it can be stabilized. However, it is unclear from earlier studies whether the same synapses involved in encoding the memory trace are those that are destabilized and restabilized after the synaptic reactivation that(More)
G(o), a member of the G(o/i) family, is the most abundant heterotrimeric G protein in brain. Most functions of G(o) are mediated by the G(betagamma) dimer; effector(s) for its alpha-subunit have not been clearly defined. Here we report that G(oalpha) interacts directly with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) through its GTPase domain. This interaction did(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to ameliorate a variety of neurological dysfunctions. This effect is believed to be mediated by their paracrine functions, since these cells rarely differentiate into neuronal cells. It is of clinical interest whether neural induction of MSCs is beneficial for the replacement therapy of neurological diseases.(More)
Members of helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein family of Id (inhibitor of differentiation) dimerize with bHLH transcription factors and function as negative regulators of differentiation during development. Most of inhibitory roles of Id proteins have been demonstrated in non-neural tissues, and their roles in the developing nervous system are not clearly(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells are able to trans-differentiate into nonmesodermal lineage cells. Here, we identified downstream signaling molecules required for acquisition of neuron-like traits by mesenchymal stem cells following the elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. We found that forskolin induced neuron-like morphology and expression of neuron-specific(More)