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BACKGROUND Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors that play a role in insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and inflammation. However, the effects of PPARgamma agonist on renal inflammation have not been fully examined in type 2 diabetic nephropathy. METHODS In the present study, we investigated the effect(More)
BACKGROUND At the beginning of neurogenesis, massive brain cell death occurs and more than 50% of cells are eliminated by apoptosis along with neuronal differentiation. However, few studies were conducted so far regarding the regulation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) death during development. Because of the physiological role of cell death during(More)
With excess nutrition, the burden of obesity is a growing problem worldwide. The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to variable disorders as all major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There are many hypothetical mechanisms to explain obesity-associated hypertension. Activation of the RAAS is a key contributing factor in obesity.(More)
The recruitment of neutrophils into the cerebral microcirculation occurs, especially, in acute brain diseases like a focal cerebral ischemia and plays important role in pathological processes. Proteinase 3 is one of the three major proteinases expressed in neutrophils but no reports are available whether proteinase 3 can modulate neuronal survival. In this(More)
BACKGROUND High glucose and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) levels are the known important mediators of diabetic nephropathy. However, the effects of these mediators on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in proximal tubule cells have yet to be fully examined within the context of early stage diabetic(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. We investigated serial changes of VEGF in the kidney and assessed whether glomerular and urinary VEGF levels are related to the severity of diabetic nephropathy. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between urinary VEGF levels and the urinary(More)
The NF-κB pathway plays an important role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, NF-κB has also been suggested as an important mechanism linking obesity, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. However, there is no current evidence regarding the mechanism of action of NF-κB inhibition in insulin resistance and diabetic nephropathy in type(More)
The induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ameliorates oxidative stress and inflammatory process, which play important roles in IgA nephropathy. We hypothesized length polymorphism in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene, which is related to the level of gene transcription, is associated with disease severity of IgA nephropathy. The subjects comprised 916(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang-II) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, but the signaling cascade of VEGF regulation in response to Ang-II in podocytes is largely unknown. In these experiments, we looked at the effect of Ang-II on the production of VEGF, and investigated whether VEGF(More)