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Reactions mediated by the brain are part of the response to intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin, a model of gram-negative bacterial infection. To test the hypothesis that a compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) may contribute to these reactions, the integrity of the BBB was measured following lipopolysaccharide administration. Rats received(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) is measured under identical conditions using an intravenous injection method in the rat and HPLC separation of morphine from its metabolites. The brain uptake of M6G expressed as %ID/g was 32-fold lower than that of morphine, and the BBB permeability surface area product(More)
BACKGROUND Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors that play a role in insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism and inflammation. However, the effects of PPARgamma agonist on renal inflammation have not been fully examined in type 2 diabetic nephropathy. METHODS In the present study, we investigated the effect(More)
With excess nutrition, the burden of obesity is a growing problem worldwide. The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to variable disorders as all major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. There are many hypothetical mechanisms to explain obesity-associated hypertension. Activation of the RAAS is a key contributing factor in obesity.(More)
BACKGROUND At the beginning of neurogenesis, massive brain cell death occurs and more than 50% of cells are eliminated by apoptosis along with neuronal differentiation. However, few studies were conducted so far regarding the regulation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) death during development. Because of the physiological role of cell death during(More)
The hypothesis that P-glycoprotein plays a functional role at the brain capillary endothelium, which makes up the blood-brain barrier in vivo, is based largely on immunocytochemical studies showing immunoreactive P-glycoprotein localized to either isolated brain microvessels or microvessels within tissue sections. The present studies use the MRK16(More)
The recruitment of neutrophils into the cerebral microcirculation occurs, especially, in acute brain diseases like a focal cerebral ischemia and plays important role in pathological processes. Proteinase 3 is one of the three major proteinases expressed in neutrophils but no reports are available whether proteinase 3 can modulate neuronal survival. In this(More)
In the present study a novel Ab-avidin fusion protein has been constructed to deliver biotinylated compounds across the blood brain barrier. This fusion molecule consists of an Ab specific for the transferrin receptor genetically fused to avidin. The Ab-avidin fusion protein (anti-TfR IgG3-CH3-Av) expressed in murine myeloma cells was correctly assembled(More)
BACKGROUND High glucose and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) levels are the known important mediators of diabetic nephropathy. However, the effects of these mediators on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in proximal tubule cells have yet to be fully examined within the context of early stage diabetic(More)
The NF-κB pathway plays an important role in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recently, NF-κB has also been suggested as an important mechanism linking obesity, inflammation, and metabolic disorders. However, there is no current evidence regarding the mechanism of action of NF-κB inhibition in insulin resistance and diabetic nephropathy in type(More)