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We have isolated a cDNA clone after reverse transcription of the genomic RNA of Asibi yellow fever virus whose structure suggests it was formed by self-priming from a 3'-terminal hairpin of 87 nucleotides in the genomic RNA. We have also isolated a clone from cDNA made to Murray Valley encephalitis virus RNA that also appears to have arisen by self-priming(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins (E1 and E2) interact to form a heterodimeric complex, which has been proposed as a functional subunit of the HCV virion envelope. As examined in cell culture transient-expression assays, the formation of properly folded, noncovalently associated E1E2 complexes is a slow and inefficient process. Due to lack of(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms triggering nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain poorly defined. RESULTS Kupffer cells are the first responding cells to hepatocyte injuries, leading to TNFα production, chemokine induction, and monocyte recruitment. The silencing of TNFα in myeloid cells reduces NASH progression. CONCLUSION Increase of TNFα-producing(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen causing mild to severe liver disease worldwide. This positive strand RNA virus is remarkably efficient at establishing chronic infections. Although a high rate of genetic variability may facilitate viral escape and persistence in the face of Ag-specific immune responses, HCV may also encode proteins that(More)
Sindbis virus (SIN) is a small positive-strand enveloped RNA virus that infects a broad range of vertebrate and insect cells. A SIN vector (called dsSIN), designed for transient expression of heterologous RNAs and proteins, was engineered by inserting a second subgenomic mRNA promoter sequence into a nonessential region of the SIN genome. By using this(More)
UNLABELLED Impaired T-cell responses in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients have been reported to be associated with the establishment of HCV persistent infection. However, the mechanism for HCV-mediated T-cell dysfunction is yet to be defined. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a pivotal role in suppressing T-cell responses. In this study(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important human pathogen that causes mild to severe liver disease worldwide. This positive-strand RNA virus is remarkably efficient at establishing persistent infection. In order for a non-cytopathic virus such as HCV to persist, the virus must escape immune recognition or inhibit the host immune responses. Immune escape via(More)
Complement is activated during the early phase of viral infection and promotes destruction of virus particles as well as the initiation of inflammatory responses. Recently, complement and complement receptors have been reported to play an important role in the regulation of innate as well as adaptive immune responses during infection. The regulation of host(More)
Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) restricted T lymphocytes preferentially recognize fragments of polypeptides processed through a nonendosomal presentation pathway. At present the intracellular compartment(s) in which polypeptide fragmentation occurs and factors which influence the formation of an antigenic epitope are not well understood. To(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) recognize short antigenic peptides associated with cell surface class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. This association presumably occurs between newly synthesized class I MHC molecules and peptide fragments in a pre-Golgi compartment. Little is known about the factors that regulate the formation of these(More)