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Macrophages, found in circulating blood as well as integrated into several tissues and organs throughout the body, represent an important first line of defense against disease and a necessary component of healthy tissue homeostasis. Additionally, macrophages that arise from the differentiation of monocytes recruited from the blood to inflamed tissues play a(More)
A subset of children with minor head injury is known to develop serious neurological consequences, but identifying this subset has been difficult. In adults, multiple variables such as skull fracture, Glasgow Coma Scale score, unconsciousness, and amnesia are significant factors that determine whether to admit the patient to the hospital and the patient's(More)
The ideal treatment of children with head trauma would include prevention of posttraumatic seizures. Ninety-two of 937 children with head injuries (9.8%) experienced posttraumatic seizures. In 94.5% of these patients (87 of 92), seizures developed within the first 24 hours after injury. Three children convulsed between 24 hours and 7 days, but only 2(More)
A case of an encapsulated organizing hematoma of the sciatic nerve is reported. Hemorrhage-induced neuropathy as a complication of anticoagulant therapy, leukemia, hemophilia, and other bleeding diatheses has been frequently reported. While trauma is the most common etiology of a hemorrhagic neuropathy, actual hematoma formation beneath the epineurium is(More)
Pediatric C-2 fractures have been managed with initial cranial skeletal tong traction or a period of bed rest for reduction and alignment followed by external and/or surgical stabilization. Thirteen children were managed with early halo orthosis to provide the initial reduction/alignment and to accomplish long-term stabilization. Eighty percent had fusion(More)
Child abuse is a complex sociophysical phenomenon in which a child may suffer physical and mental assault ranging from death to emotional deprivation. In this report, an effort is made to identify the pathogenetic mechanisms of head injury in child abuse and to describe the site of injury, incidence of head injury, and difficulties encountered in(More)
Head injuries in children under the age of 3 years have not been extensively studied, due in part to the lack of an objective tool for neurological assessment. We have developed a Children's Coma Scale (CCS) by modifying the verbal response subscore of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to overcome this limitation. When applied prospectively to children under 3(More)
Accumulating evidence has implicated the proteasome in the processing of protein along the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation pathway. The availability of potent proteasome inhibitors provides an opportunity to examine the role of proteasome function in antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules to CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes(More)
A 16-month-old infant presented with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis and respiratory failure after removal of a thoracic teratoma. Right diaphragmatic function recovered after end-to-end anastomosis of a transected phrenic nerve. We conclude that phrenic nerve repair can restore diaphragmatic function and should be attempted in selected cases of(More)
Respiratory virus infections, such as influenza, typically induce a robust type I (pro-inflammatory cytokine) immune response, however, the production of type 2 cytokines has been observed. Type 2 cytokine production during respiratory virus infection is linked to asthma exacerbation; however, type 2 cytokines may also be tissue protective. Interleukin(More)