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We have isolated a cDNA clone after reverse transcription of the genomic RNA of Asibi yellow fever virus whose structure suggests it was formed by self-priming from a 3'-terminal hairpin of 87 nucleotides in the genomic RNA. We have also isolated a clone from cDNA made to Murray Valley encephalitis virus RNA that also appears to have arisen by self-priming(More)
Sindbis virus (SIN) is a small positive-strand enveloped RNA virus that infects a broad range of vertebrate and insect cells. A SIN vector (called dsSIN), designed for transient expression of heterologous RNAs and proteins, was engineered by inserting a second subgenomic mRNA promoter sequence into a nonessential region of the SIN genome. By using this(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) glycoproteins (E1 and E2) interact to form a heterodimeric complex, which has been proposed as a functional subunit of the HCV virion envelope. As examined in cell culture transient-expression assays, the formation of properly folded, noncovalently associated E1E2 complexes is a slow and inefficient process. Due to lack of(More)
We have determined the complete sequence of the RNA of dengue 2 virus (S1 candidate vaccine strain derived from the PR-159 isolate) with the exception of about 15 nucleotides at the 5' end. The genome organization is the same as that deduced earlier for other flaviviruses and the amino acid sequences of the encoded dengue 2 proteins show striking homology(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms triggering nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain poorly defined. RESULTS Kupffer cells are the first responding cells to hepatocyte injuries, leading to TNFα production, chemokine induction, and monocyte recruitment. The silencing of TNFα in myeloid cells reduces NASH progression. CONCLUSION Increase of TNFα-producing(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is remarkably efficient at establishing persistent infection, suggesting that it has evolved one or more strategies aimed at evading the host immune response. T cell responses, including interferon-gamma production, are severely suppressed in chronic HCV patients. The HCV core protein has been previously shown to circulate in the(More)
Four complementation groups of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of Sindbis virus that fail to make RNA at the nonpermissive temperature are known, and we have previously shown that group F mutants have defects in nsP4. Here we map representatives of groups A, B, and G. Restriction fragments from a full-length clone of Sindbis virus, Toto1101, were(More)
The tolerogenic nature of the liver allows daily exposure to gut-derived foreign Ags without causing inflammation, but it may facilitate persistent infection in the liver. NK cells play a central role in innate immunity, as well as in shaping the adaptive immune response. We hypothesized that the naive mouse liver maintains intrahepatic NK cells in a(More)
NK cells represent a large proportion of the lymphocyte population in the liver and are involved in early innate immunity to pathogen infection. As a result of liver endothelial cell fenestrations, parenchymal cells are not separated by a basal membrane, and thereby pathogen-infected hepatocytes are extensively capable of interacting with innate immune(More)
In addition to hepatocytes, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects immune cells, including macrophages. However, little is known concerning the impact of HCV infection on cellular functions of these immune effector cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) signalsome and NF-kappaB, which leads to the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2),(More)