Young S Gwak

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In the spinal cord, neuron and glial cells actively interact and contribute to neurofunction. Surprisingly, both cell types have similar receptors, transporters and ion channels and also produce similar neurotransmitters and cytokines. The neuroanatomical and neurochemical similarities work synergistically to maintain physiological homeostasis in the normal(More)
In this study, we evaluated whether astrocytic and microglial activation mediates below-level neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury. Male Sprague-Dawley (225-250 g) rats were given low thoracic (T13) spinal transverse hemisection and behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods were used to examine the development and maintenance(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to central pain syndrome including hyperalgesia to mechanical stimulation. Since there is evidence that nerve growth factor (NGF) contributes to pain-related behaviors, we wished to determine if anti-NGF might inhibit abnormal somatosensory behaviors that develop following SCI in rats. SCI was performed in male(More)
In this study, we evaluated whether propentofylline, a methylxanthine derivative, modulates spinal glial activation and GABAergic inhibitory tone by modulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)(65), the GABA synthase enzyme, in the spinal dorsal horn following spinal cord injury (SCI). Sprague-Dawley rats (225-250 g) were given a unilateral spinal(More)
Spinal cord injury induces maladaptive synaptic transmission in the somatosensory system that results in chronic central neuropathic pain. Recent literature suggests that glial-neuronal interactions are important modulators in synaptic transmission following spinal cord injury. Neuronal hyperexcitability is one of the predominant phenomenon caused by(More)
In this study, we examined whether blocking spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) by a ROS scavenger would attenuate below-level central neuropathic pain and promote recovery of locomotion. Rats with T10 SCI developed mechanical allodynia in both hind paws and overproduction of ROS, as assayed by Dhet intensity, in(More)
Of the glutamate receptor types, the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G proteins coupled and can initiate a number of intracellular pathways leading to hyperexcitability of spinal neurons. In this study, we tested the expression of mGluRs to determine which cell types might contribute to sustained neuronal hyperexcitability in the lumbar(More)
Recent work regarding chronic central neuropathic pain (CNP) following spinal cord injury (SCI) suggests that activation of key signaling molecules such as members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family play a role in the expression of at-level mechanical allodynia. Previously, we have shown that the development of at-level CNP following(More)
In the present study, we have examined whether spinal hemisection injury induces changes in the electrophysiological properties of thalamic ventral posteriorlateral (VPL) neurons in rats. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral spinal cord injury by transverse hemisection at the T13 spinal segment. Four weeks after the T13 spinal hemisection,(More)
In this study, we investigated the role of the spinal GABAergic system in central neuropathic painlike outcomes following spinal cord injury (SCI) produced by a spinal hemitransection at T13 of the rat. After SCI, mechanical allodynia develops bilaterally in both hind paws of the rat, lasting longer than 40 days, as evidenced by an increase in paw(More)