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Nitric oxide (NO) functions not only as an important signaling molecule in the brain by producing cGMP, but also regulates neuronal cell apoptosis. The mechanism by which NO regulates apoptosis is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that NO, produced either from the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP) or by transfection of neuronal NO(More)
Heme oxygenases (HOs) are the rate-limiting enzymes in the catabolism of heme into biliverdin, free iron, and carbon monoxide. Two genetically distinct isoforms of HO have been characterized: an inducible form, HO-1, and a constitutively expressed form, HO-2. HO-1 is a kind of stress protein, and thus regarded as a sensitive and reliable indicator of(More)
The transcription factor NF-κB has an essential role in inflammation in endothelial cells. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) prevents vascular inflammation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying NF-κB-mediated regulation of eNOS expression has not been clearly elucidated. We here found that NF-κB-activating stimuli,(More)
Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been widely used in treatment of major depression because of their efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Escitalopram, an SSRI, is known to decrease oxidative stress in chronic stress animal models. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of pre- and post-treatments with 20 mg/kg and(More)
Nitric oxide can prevent or induce apoptosis depending on its concentration, cell type, and the oxidative milieu. Nitric oxide inhibits apoptosis and inflammation by S-nitrosylation of the active site cysteine of caspases, the central effector molecules of cell death as well as maturation of IL-1beta and IL-18. The ability of nitric oxide to S-nitrosylate(More)
Astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its molecular action and mechanism have not been elucidated. We examined in vitro and in vivo regulatory function of astaxanthin on production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as well as expression of inducible NO synthase(More)
A cancer/testis antigen, CAGE, is widely expressed in various cancer tissues and cancer cell lines but not in normal tissues except the testis. In the present study, ectopic expression of CAGE in fibroblast cells resulted in foci formation, suggesting its cell-transforming ability. Using stable HeLa transfectant clones with the tetracycline-inducible CAGE(More)
Redd1 (known as RTP801/Dig2/DDIT4) is a stress-induced protein, and it is known to be regulated in response to some stresses including hypoxia and oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the time-dependent changes in Redd1 immunoreactivity and its protein levels in the gerbil hippocampus proper (CA1-3 regions) after 5 min of transient global(More)
We observed chronological changes in the mitochondrial-specific antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) and thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) and their neuroprotective effects in the hippocampal CA1 region after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. In the sham-operated group, weak Prx3 and Trx2 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum pyramidale. Prx3(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that manifests as chronic inflammation and joint tissue destruction. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of RA have not been fully elucidated. Here, we explored the role of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α (encoded by HIF1A) and HIF-2α (encoded by EPAS1). HIF-2α was markedly(More)