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Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), a natural product of Capsicum species, is known to induce excitation of nociceptive terminals involved in pain perception. Recent studies have also shown that capsaicin not only has chemopreventive properties against certain carcinogens and mutagens but also exerts anticancer activity. Here, we(More)
Fractalkine (FKN) has been implicated in modulation of angiogenesis and vascular inflammation, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. We have investigated the molecular mechanism by which FKN regulates angiogenesis. We found that recombinant FKN increases in vitro proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the regulation of NF-kappaB activation, which plays an important role in inflammation and cell survival. However, the molecular mechanisms of ROS in NF-kappaB activation remain poorly defined. We found that the non-provitamin A carotenoid, lutein, decreased intracellular H(2)O(2) accumulation by(More)
Homing of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to the neovascular zone is now considered to be an essential step in the formation of vascular networks during embryonic development and also for neovascularization in postnatal life. We report here the prominent role of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)/IGF2 receptor (IGF2R) system in promoting EPC(More)
Nitric oxide can prevent or induce apoptosis depending on its concentration, cell type, and the oxidative milieu. Nitric oxide inhibits apoptosis and inflammation by S-nitrosylation of the active site cysteine of caspases, the central effector molecules of cell death as well as maturation of IL-1beta and IL-18. The ability of nitric oxide to S-nitrosylate(More)
Farnesylation of p21(ras) is an important step in the intracellular signaling pathway of growth factors, hormones, and immune stimulants. We synthesized a potent and selective farnesyltransferase inhibitor (LB42708) with IC(50) values of 0.8 nM in vitro and 8 nM in cultured cells against p21(ras) farnesylation and examined the effects of this inhibitor in(More)
Unveiling of endothelial nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation is pivotal for understanding the inflammatory reaction and the pathogenesis of inflammatory vascular diseases. We here report the novel function of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) in controlling endothelial NF-kappaB activation and inflammatory responses. In human endothelial(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catabolizes heme into CO, biliverdin, and free iron and serves as a protective enzyme by virtue of its anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antiproliferative actions. Previously, we have demonstrated that human CD4(+) T cells express HO-1 and that HO-1-overexpressing Jurkat T cells tend to display lower proliferative response. The(More)
Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from L-arginine by NO synthases, is a small, lipophilic, diffusible, highly reactive molecule with dichotomous regulatory roles in many biological events under physiological and pathological conditions. NO can promote apoptosis (pro-apoptosis) in some cells, whereas it inhibits apoptosis (anti-apoptosis) in other cells. This(More)
Astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its molecular action and mechanism have not been elucidated. We examined in vitro and in vivo regulatory function of astaxanthin on production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as well as expression of inducible NO synthase(More)