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Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been widely used in treatment of major depression because of their efficacy, safety, and tolerability. Escitalopram, an SSRI, is known to decrease oxidative stress in chronic stress animal models. In the present study, we examined the neuroprotective effects of pre- and post-treatments with 20 mg/kg and(More)
Redd1 (known as RTP801/Dig2/DDIT4) is a stress-induced protein, and it is known to be regulated in response to some stresses including hypoxia and oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated the time-dependent changes in Redd1 immunoreactivity and its protein levels in the gerbil hippocampus proper (CA1-3 regions) after 5 min of transient global(More)
We observed chronological changes in the mitochondrial-specific antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin 3 (Prx3) and thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) and their neuroprotective effects in the hippocampal CA1 region after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. In the sham-operated group, weak Prx3 and Trx2 immunoreactivity was detected in the stratum pyramidale. Prx3(More)
Restraint stress induces physiological changes in the brain. In the present study, we observed the effects of repeated stress on ischemic damage associated with oxidative stress in gerbils. Animals were placed into restrainers for 5h (between 09:30 h and 14:30 h) for 21 consecutive days prior to 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Experimental groups were(More)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that manifests as chronic inflammation and joint tissue destruction. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of RA have not been fully elucidated. Here, we explored the role of the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), HIF-1α (encoded by HIF1A) and HIF-2α (encoded by EPAS1). HIF-2α was markedly(More)
Ginseng berry possesses higher ginsenoside content than its root, which has been traditionally used in herbal medicine for many human diseases, including atherosclerosis. We here examined the antiatherogenic effects of the Korean ginseng berry extract (KGBE) and investigated its underlying mechanism of action in vitro and in vivo. Administration of KGBE(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces a strong immune response, and pretreatment with low dose of LPS suppresses the production of proinflammatory mediators. In the present study, we investigated the effect of LPS preconditioning on the delayed neuronal death in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. LPS preconditioning(More)
Young animals appear much less vulnerable to ischemic insults. In present study, we compared neuronal damage and changes in the immunoreactivities and levels of inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL-) 2 as a pro-inflammatory cytokine and its receptor (IL-2Rβ), IL-4 and IL-13 as anti-inflammatory cytokines, in the hippocampal CA1 region between adult and(More)
Although there are many studies on ischemic brain damage in the gerbil, which is a good model of transient cerebral ischemia, studies on neuronal damage according to the duration of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) time are limited. We carried out neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus after various durations of I-R (5, 10, 15 and 20 min) using Fluoro-Jade B(More)
Activation of astrocytes and microglia in the post-ischemic hippocampus has been investigated using ischemia models. The aim of this study was to investigate differences of delayed neuronal death and gliosis in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) between adult and aged gerbils. Delayed neuronal death in the CA1 was later in the aged gerbil than in the adult(More)