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PURPOSE   The metabolic and biochemical changes that occur during epileptogenesis remain to be determined. (18) F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H MRS) are noninvasive techniques that provide indirect information on ongoing pathologic changes. We, therefore, utilized these methods to(More)
With aging, the human brain tissue undergoes degeneration and a decline in cognitive function. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a sensitive method for detecting microstructural changes of the brain white matter (WM). We examined the age-dependent, region-specific, changing patterns in microstructures of the brain. This was preformed by DTI analysis of 58(More)
OBJECTIVES Most imaging studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have focused on gray matter alterations, although many MCI patients demonstrate subcortical vascular changes. We investigated the changes of the hippocampal area and various white matter areas in MCI patients with using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), according to the severity of subcortical(More)
OBJECT The authors of previous studies have demonstrated that local adenosine efflux may contribute to the therapeutic mechanism of action of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor. Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of DBS-targeted regions may thus advance functional neurosurgical procedures by identifying candidate(More)
Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) ameliorates motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. Here, using a large animal (pig) model of human STN DBS neurosurgery, we utilized fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in combination with a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) implanted into the striatum to monitor(More)
To investigate the current source location from the electroencephalograms (EEGs) of 12 patients who showed typical triphasic waves attributable to various causes, using the combination of a dipole source model and a distributed source model. The triphasic waves were explained by a single main dipole in 10 of the 12 patients, and 2 patients had two dipoles(More)
Although it is well documented that long-term therapy with older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) leads to an increase in risk for atherosclerosis, there has been only limited information regarding the vascular risk in patients who are treated with new AEDs. We therefore conducted a prospective longitudinal study to assess the potential effects of new AEDs on the(More)
INTRODUCTION The cognitive and behavioral effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) administered to the deep cerebral nuclei for epilepsy treatment is unknown. We investigated the cognitive outcomes at least 12 months after DBS to the bilateral anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) for controlling intractable epilepsy. METHODS Nine patients with intractable(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The conventional therapeutic regimen for status epilepticus (SE) may require artificial ventilation and hemodynamic support, and is associated with significant complications and increased mortality. We investigated the safety and effectiveness of topiramate (TPM) in patients with refractory SE, who had medical complications such as(More)
The Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) measures extracellular neurotransmitter concentration in vivo and displays the data graphically in nearly real time. WINCS implements two electroanalytical methods, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), to measure neurotransmitter(More)