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Cerebral ischemic injury proceeds with excitotoxicity-induced acute neuronal death in the ischemic core and with delayed damage processes in the penumbra. However, knowledge concerning the direct mediators that connect these two processes is limited. Here, we demonstrate that high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nonhistone DNA-binding protein, is massively(More)
High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) was originally identified as a ubiquitously expressed, abundant nonhistone DNA-binding protein. Recently, it was found to act as a cytokine-like mediator of delayed endotoxin lethality and of acute lung injury. Previously, we reported that HMGB1 is massively released extracellularly and plays a cytokine-like function in the(More)
Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a pyruvate derivative, and has recently been reported to prevent lethality in mice with established lethal sepsis and systemic inflammation. In a previous study, we reported that EP has a neuroprotective effect in a rat cerebral ischemia model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), in which it was found to be effective when(More)
Neurite outgrowth is a central event of neuronal differentiation that proceeds in multiple processes requiring various cellular factors. Here we demonstrated that c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) plays an essential role in RA-induced neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with RA induced a strong activation of JNK1 within 10 min, and(More)
Protein phosphatase 1alpha (PP1alpha) regulates phosphorylation of BRCA1, which contains a PP1-binding motif (898)KVTF(901). Mutation of this motif greatly reduces the interaction between BRCA1 and PP1alpha. Here we show that mutation of the PP1-binding motif abolishes the ability of BRCA1 to enhance survival of Brca1-deficient mouse mammary tumor cells(More)
The activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been implicated in the pathological changes accompanying inflammatory and apoptotic processes of various cell types including neurons. In a kainic acid (KA)-induced mouse seizure model, p38 MAPK is induced in reactive astrocytes in the CA3 region of the hippocampus where severe neuronal loss(More)
The JNK interacting protein, JSAP1, has been identified as a scaffold protein for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and as a linker protein for the cargo transport along the axons. To investigate the physiological function of JSAP1 in vivo, we generated mice lacking JSAP1. The JSAP1 null mutation produced various developmental(More)
Here we report the dynamically regulated expression of p38beta MAPK isoform in specific subsets of cells in postischemic brain. The activity of p38beta MAPK in the postischemic brain revealed biphasic induction at 30 min and 4 days after 1 h MCAO. During the early surge period, p38beta MAPK was preferentially localized in the nucleus and dendrites of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a pyruvate derivative that has been reported recently to prevent lethality in mice with established lethal sepsis and systemic inflammation. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of EP in a rat cerebral ischemia model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats(More)
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