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Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a constituent of green tea, and increasing evidence suggests that EGCG has neuroprotective effects on oxidative stress-injured neuronal cells, especially motoneurons. Although the neuroprotective effects of EGCG have been demonstrated in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases and ischemic stroke models, there has been no(More)
We have examined the possibility that a component of Panax ginseng, ginsenoside-Rh1, acts by binding to steroid hormone receptors such as receptors for estrogen, glucocorticoid, androgen, and retinoic acid. Ginsenoside-Rh1 activated the transcription of the estrogen-responsive luciferase reporter gene in MCF-7 breast cancer cells at a concentration of 50(More)
The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-K) pathway has been suggested to play a pivotal role in neuronal survival. Although PI3-K has been recently identified as a neuroprotectant, there are no reports regarding the effect of a direct PI3-K activator on Abeta-induced neurotoxicity. We investigated whether direct PI3-K activation prevents Abeta-induced(More)
In age-related studies, young animals are resistant to ischemic damage. In present study, we investigated the neuronal death of pyramidal neurons and compared changes in the immunoreactivities and levels of antioxidants, Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1), Mn-SOD (SOD2), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), in the hippocampal CA1 region between adult and young(More)
Point mutations such as G93A and A4V in the human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene (hSOD1) cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). In spite of several theories to explain the pathogenic mechanisms, the mechanism remains largely unclear. Increased activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has recently been emphasized as an important(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3, especially the beta form (GSK-3beta), plays key roles in oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death, an important pathogenic mechanism of various neurodegenerative diseases. Although the neuroprotective effects of GSK-3beta inhibitors have been described, the optimal level of GSK-3beta inhibition for neuronal cell survival has(More)
The neurotoxicity of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), one of the most important drugs for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, still remains controversial, although much more data on L-DOPA neurotoxicity have been presented. Considering the well known neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO), the inhibitory effects of EPO on L-DOPA(More)
We investigated the neuroprotective effect and mechanisms of action of cilnidipine, a long-acting, second-generation 1,4-dihydropyridine inhibitor of L- and N-type calcium channels, in PC12 cells that were neuronally differentiated by treatment with nerve growth factor (nPC12 cells). To evaluate the effect of cilnidipine on viability, nPC12 cells were(More)
Oxidative stress plays critical roles in the pathogenic mechanisms of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus much research effort has focused on antioxidants as potential treatment agents for AD. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is known to have powerful antioxidant effects. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of CoQ10(More)
Recanalization and secondary prevention are the main therapeutic strategies for acute ischemic stroke. Neuroprotective therapies have also been investigated despite unsuccessful clinical results. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), which is an essential cofactor for electron transport in mitochondria, is known to have an antioxidant effect. We investigated the protective(More)