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In the N-end rule pathway, a set of N-terminal amino acids, called N-degrons, are recognized and ubiquitinated by the UBR proteins. Here we examined various N-end rule inhibitors to identify essential structural components of the system. Our study using in vitro biochemical assay indicated that the l-conformation and protonated α-amino group of the first(More)
The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system in which destabilizing N-terminal amino acids of short lived proteins are recognized by recognition components (N-recognins) as an essential element of degrons, called N-degrons. In eukaryotes, the major way to generate N-degrons is through arginylation by ATE1 arginyl-tRNA-protein transferases, which transfer(More)
Inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is required for vertebrate neural induction, and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) may affect neural induction through phosphorylation at the linker region of Smad1, thus regulating BMP signaling. Here we show that human embryonic stem cells efficiently convert to neuroepithelial cells in the absence(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that a small subset of cancer cells is capable of tumor initiation. The existence of tumor initiating cancer stem cells (CSCs) has several implications in terms of future cancer treatment and therapies. However, recently, several researchers proposed that differentiated cancer cells (non-CSCs) can convert to stem-like(More)
We show that ATE1-encoded Arg-transfer RNA transferase (R-transferase) of the N-end rule pathway mediates N-terminal arginylation of multiple endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing chaperones, leading to their cytosolic relocalization and turnover. N-terminal arginylation of BiP (also known as GRP78), protein disulphide isomerase and calreticulin is co-induced(More)
The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system in which destabilizing N-terminal residues of short-lived proteins act as degradation determinants (N-degrons). Substrates carrying N-degrons are recognized by N-recognins that mediate ubiquitylation-dependent selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our previous studies identified the mammalian N-recognin(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and PAX6 transcription are required for neuroectoderm specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In this study, we asked how FGF signaling leads to PAX6 transcription and neuroectoderm specification from hESCs. Under a chemically defined medium, FGF inhibition blocked phosphorylation of extracellular(More)
The N-end rule pathway is a cellular proteolytic system that utilizes specific N-terminal residues as degradation determinants, called N-degrons. N-degrons are recognized and bound by specific recognition components (N-recognins) that mediate polyubiquitination of low-abundance regulators and selective proteolysis through the proteasome. Our earlier work(More)
The N-end rule pathway is a proteolytic system in which its recognition components (N-recognins) recognize destabilizing N-terminal residues of short-lived proteins as an essential element of specific degrons, called N-degrons. The RING E3 ligases UBR2 and UBR1 are major N-recognins that share size (200 kDa), conserved domains and substrate specificities to(More)
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), or alternatively called tumor initiating cells (TICs), are a subpopulation of tumor cells, which possesses the ability to self-renew and differentiate into bulk tumor mass. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that CSCs contribute to the growth and recurrence of tumors and the resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. CSCs(More)