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The memory reconsolidation hypothesis suggests that a memory trace becomes labile after retrieval and needs to be reconsolidated before it can be stabilized. However, it is unclear from earlier studies whether the same synapses involved in encoding the memory trace are those that are destabilized and restabilized after the synaptic reactivation that(More)
Reelin, an extracellular glycoprotein has an important role in the proper migration and positioning of neurons during brain development. Lack of reelin causes not only disorganized lamination of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex but also malpositioning of mesencephalic dopaminergic (mDA) neurons. However, the accurate role of reelin in the migration and(More)
CREB mediates the transcriptional effects of glucose and incretin hormones in insulin-target cells and insulin-producing β-cells. Although the inhibition of CREB activity is known to decrease the β-cell mass, it is still unknown what factors inversely alter the CREB signaling pathway in β-cells. Here, we show that β-cell dysfunctions occurring in chronic(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease which is caused by degeneration of motor neurons in the central nervous system. The incidence of ALS is higher in men than women, but the female advantage disappears with increased age. Here, we report evidence that the female advantage is due to the protective role of estrogen. In an ALS mouse(More)
G(o), a member of the G(o/i) family, is the most abundant heterotrimeric G protein in brain. Most functions of G(o) are mediated by the G(betagamma) dimer; effector(s) for its alpha-subunit have not been clearly defined. Here we report that G(oalpha) interacts directly with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) through its GTPase domain. This interaction did(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete bioactive factors that exert diverse responses in vivo. In the present study, we explored mechanism how MSCs may lead to higher functional recovery in the animal stroke model. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were transplanted into the brain parenchyma 3 days after induction of stroke by occluding middle cerebral artery for 2(More)
Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been shown to enhance the recovery of brain functions following ischemic injury. Although immune modulation has been suggested to be one of the mechanisms, the molecular mechanisms underlying improved recovery has not been clearly identified. Here, we report that MSCs secrete transforming growth(More)
Neurofibrillary tangles comprised of highly phosphorylated tau proteins are a key component of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Mice lacking Reelin (Reln), double-knockouts lacking the VLDL receptor (VLDLR) and ApoE receptor2 (ApoER2), and mice lacking disabled-1 (Dab1) display increased levels of phosphorylated tau. Because Reln binds to recombinant ApoE(More)
1. Neurogenin1 (Ngn1) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that is expressed in neuronal precursors during development of the nervous system. 2. In the present work, we investigated a instructive potential of Ngn1 in pluripotent embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. Treatment with retinoic acid (RA) induced expression of Ngn1 as well as NeuroD(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells are able to trans-differentiate into nonmesodermal lineage cells. Here, we identified downstream signaling molecules required for acquisition of neuron-like traits by mesenchymal stem cells following the elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. We found that forskolin induced neuron-like morphology and expression of neuron-specific(More)