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CpG DNA has been recognized as a powerful stimulant of dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrate that CpG DNA inhibits spontaneous apoptosis of DCs. CpG DNA up-regulated cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) as well as Bcl-2 and Bcl-x(L), but down-regulated active caspase-3. Although CpG DNA activated p38 mitogen-activated protein(More)
Pandemics in poultry caused by the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A virus occur too frequently globally, and there is growing concern about the HPAI A virus due to the possibility of a pandemic among humans. Thus, it is important to develop a vaccine against HPAI suitable for both humans and animals. Various approaches are underway to develop such(More)
PURPOSE Muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) harvested from skeletal muscles have the advantage of providing easier access and do not pose the immunogenic risks of embryonic stem cells. We investigated the effect of intracavernosal transplantation of MDSCs on erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS Adult male(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSCs mixed with Matrixen as a cell carrier on the erectile dysfunction caused by bilateral cavernous nerve crushing injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS White male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: sham-operated control group (n = 5), bilateral cavernous nerve crushing group(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Here, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA vaccine, HB-110, in mice and Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) undergoing adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) treatment. METHODS For animal study, mice (BALB/c or HBV transgenic) were immunized with mHB-110, and T-cell and antibody responses were evaluated.(More)
IL-12 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. IL-12 induces T cell proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion from activated T cells. It was also reported that IL-12 prevents apoptosis of CD4(+) T cells. However, the signaling mechanism that regulates these IL-12-induced responses is poorly understood yet. In this(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important causative agent of liver disease, but currently there is no available prophylactic vaccine against HCV infection. Here, we investigated the HCV E2- and core-specific T-cell responses induced by DNA (D) and/or recombinant adenovirus (A) vaccines. In single (D versus A) or double immunizations (D-D versus A-A), the(More)
In this study, we show that the formation of polyploidy following sustained mitotic checkpoint activation appears to be preceded by the ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of hBubR1. In addition, the level of hBubR1 is significantly reduced not only in polyploid cells created by sustained mitotic spindle damage, but also in 21 (31.3%) of 67 human colon(More)
Immune correlates of protection against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are not well understood. Here we investigated 2 naive and 6 immunized chimpanzees before and after intravenous challenge, 12 weeks after the last immunization, with 100 50% chimpanzee infectious doses (CID(50)) of heterologous genotype 1b HCV. Vaccination with recombinant DNA and(More)
Human CMV encodes four unique short region proteins (US), US2, US3, US6, and US11, each independently sufficient for causing the down-regulation of MHC class I molecules on the cell surface. This down-regulation allows infected cells to evade recognition by cytotoxic T cells but leaves them susceptible to NK cells, which lyse cells that lack class I(More)