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The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factors (TRAFs) have emerged as the major signal transducers for the TNF receptor superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR) superfamily. TRAFs collectively play important functions in both adaptive and innate immunity. Recent functional and structural studies have revealed(More)
The inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) represent the only endogenous caspase inhibitors and are characterized by the presence of baculoviral IAP repeats (BIRs). Here, we report the crystal structure of the complex between human caspase-7 and XIAP (BIR2 and the proceeding linker). The structure surprisingly reveals that the linker is the only contacting(More)
Curcumin has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic activities. However, the effect of curcumin on the maturation and immunostimulatory function of dendritic cells (DC) largely remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether curcumin can influence surface molecule expression, cytokine production, and their(More)
TRAF proteins are major mediators for the cell activation, cell survival, and antiapoptotic functions of the TNF receptor superfamily. They can be recruited to activated TNF receptors either by direct interactions with the receptors or indirectly via the adaptor protein TRADD. We now report the structure of the TRADD-TRAF2 complex, which is highly distinct(More)
The insulin signaling pathway has been reported to mediate R-alpha-lipoic acid- (R-LA-)-stimulated glucose uptake into 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myotubes. We investigated the role of the thiol antioxidant dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) and intracellular glutathione (GSH) in R-LA-stimulated glucose transport and explored the hypothesis that R-LA could increase(More)
Because of its high mortality rate, ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death among women and a highly unmet medical need. New therapeutic agents that are effective and well tolerated are needed and cancer antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies that have direct pharmacologic effects or can stimulate immunological responses represent a promising class of(More)
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive protein that is known to regulate cellular functions such as cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effects of HO activity on the expression of p53 in the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell line ARPE-19. Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) induced the expression of both(More)
OBJECTIVE Oxidative stress has been implicated in cellular senescence and vascular aging. We determined the role and mechanism of the small GTPase rac1 in vascular endothelial cell senescence. METHODS AND RESULTS Adenoviral-mediated expression of the constitutively active allele of rac1 (rac1V12) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells resulted in(More)
The dual-function protein apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1/ref-1) is essential for DNA repair and also governs the reductive activation of many redox-sensitive transcription factors. We examined the role of APE1/ref-1 in regulation of endothelium-dependent tone and systemic blood pressure. APE1/ref-1+/- mice have impaired(More)
The diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) is widely used as an inhibitor of flavoenzymes, particularly NADPH oxidase. In this study, we investigated the effect of DPI on the apoptosis of human RPE cells. DPI treatment in ARPE-19 cells evoked a dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition, and also induced DNA fragmentation and protein content of the proapoptotic factor(More)