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Personal attitude toward ambiguity contributes to individual differences in decision making in uncertain situations. Operationally, these attitudes reflect the various coping strategies elected to overcome the limited information. A key brain region involved in cognitive control for performance adjustments is the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). To(More)
Chronic alcohol consumption affects multiple cognitive processes supported by far-reaching cerebral networks. To identify neurofunctional mechanisms underlying selective deficits, 27 sober alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity analysis(More)
There is considerable evidence that neuroimaging findings can improve the early diagnosis of Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE) in clinical settings. The most distinctive neuroimaging finding of acute WE are cytotoxic edema and vasogenic edema, which are represented by bilateral symmetric hyperintensity alterations on T2-weighted MR images in the periphery of(More)
The anterior insula has been proposed to play a crucial role in eating disorders. However, it is still poorly understood how the anterior insula is involved in anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), which are characterized by opposite motivational responses to food. We applied a cue-reactivity paradigm using blood oxygen level-dependent functional(More)
OBJECTIVE Alcohol dependence is characterized by persistent alcohol-seeking despite negative consequences. Previous studies suggest that maladaptive persistent behaviors reflect alcohol-induced brain changes that cause alterations in the cortico-striatal-limbic circuit. METHODS Twenty one alcohol dependent patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls(More)
The degree at which individuals maintain behavioral strategies during uncertain conditions varies widely; however, the neural bases of these individual differences remain unclear. This study examines the functional connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex during a decision-making task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The strength of the(More)
Alcohol dependence is a chronic disorder that results from a variety of genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Relapse prevention for alcohol dependence has traditionally involved psychosocial and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pharmacotherapy, however, in conjunction with behavioral therapy, is generating interest as another modality to(More)
Social cognition entails both cognitive and affective processing, and impairments in both have accounted for residual symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD). However, there has been a lack of studies identifying neural substrates responsible for social cognitive difficulties in BD patients. Fourteen euthymic BD patients and 14 healthy normal controls underwent(More)