Learn More
This paper presents the results of the two shared tasks associated with W-NUT 2015: (1) a text normalization task with 10 participants; and (2) a named entity tagging task with 8 participants. We outline the task, annotation process and dataset statistics, and provide a high-level overview of the participating systems for each shared task.
Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays a pivotal role in regulating food intake, energy expenditure and neuroendocrine function. Leptin stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids and the uptake of glucose, and prevents the accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues, which can lead to functional impairments known as "lipotoxicity". The(More)
Hypothalamic neurons containing orexin (hypocretin) are activated during motivated behaviors and active waking. We show that injection of orexin-A into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) of mice or rats increased glucose uptake and promoted insulin-induced glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle, but not in white adipose tissue, by(More)
beta cells sense glucose through its metabolism and the resulting increase in ATP, which subsequently stimulates insulin secretion. Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) mediates mitochondrial proton leak, decreasing ATP production. In the present study, we assessed UCP2's role in regulating insulin secretion. UCP2-deficient mice had higher islet ATP levels and(More)
The Rho family of GTPases regulates many aspects of cellular behavior through alterations to the actin cytoskeleton . The majority of the Rho family proteins function as molecular switches cycling between the active, GTP-bound and the inactive, GDP-bound conformations . Unlike typical Rho-family proteins, the Rnd subfamily members, including Rnd1, Rnd2,(More)
Insulin signaling in the hypothalamus plays a role in maintaining body weight. Studies suggest that the forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 is an important mediator of insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Here we demonstrate that in normal mice, hypothalamic Foxo1 expression is reduced by the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. These hormones'(More)
OBJECTIVE White adipose tissue is a critical regulator of whole-body glucose metabolism. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is a secreted protein that inhibits adipocyte differentiation, both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Pref-1 overexpression on whole-body glucose homeostasis and its contribution to the development of(More)
member individuals (online only): $370.00, APS members: online is free. Subscriptions from outside the United States are payable in US currency or full equivalent. Subscriptions are accepted on a calendar-year basis only. 17601. The code at the bottom of the first page of an article indicates the copyright owner's consent that copies of that article may be(More)
BACKGROUND EGb761, a standardized Ginkgo biloba extract, has antioxidant and antiplatelet aggregation and thus might protect against atherosclerosis. However, molecular and functional properties of EGb761 and its major subcomponents have not been well characterized. We investigated the effect of EGb761 and its major subcomponents (bilobalide, kaemferol, and(More)
BACKGROUND Insulin, a pleotrophic hormone, has diverse effects in the body. Recent work has highlighted the important role of insulin's action in the nervous system on glucose and energy homeostasis, memory, and mood. SCOPE OF REVIEW Here we review experimental and clinical work that has broadened the understanding of insulin's diverse functions in the(More)