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This paper presents the results of the two shared tasks associated with W-NUT 2015: (1) a text normalization task with 10 participants; and (2) a named entity tagging task with 8 participants. We outline the task, annotation process and dataset statistics, and provide a high-level overview of the participating systems for each shared task.
Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays a pivotal role in regulating food intake, energy expenditure and neuroendocrine function. Leptin stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids and the uptake of glucose, and prevents the accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues, which can lead to functional impairments known as "lipotoxicity". The(More)
beta cells sense glucose through its metabolism and the resulting increase in ATP, which subsequently stimulates insulin secretion. Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) mediates mitochondrial proton leak, decreasing ATP production. In the present study, we assessed UCP2's role in regulating insulin secretion. UCP2-deficient mice had higher islet ATP levels and(More)
Mice lacking the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B are hypersensitive to insulin and resistant to obesity. However, the molecular basis for resistance to obesity has been unclear. Here we show that PTP1B regulates leptin signaling. In transfection studies, PTP1B dephosphorylates the leptin receptor-associated kinase, Jak2. PTP1B is expressed in(More)
Hypothalamic neurons containing orexin (hypocretin) are activated during motivated behaviors and active waking. We show that injection of orexin-A into the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) of mice or rats increased glucose uptake and promoted insulin-induced glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle, but not in white adipose tissue, by(More)
The Rho family of GTPases regulates many aspects of cellular behavior through alterations to the actin cytoskeleton . The majority of the Rho family proteins function as molecular switches cycling between the active, GTP-bound and the inactive, GDP-bound conformations . Unlike typical Rho-family proteins, the Rnd subfamily members, including Rnd1, Rnd2,(More)
The circulating level of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is elevated in various insulin-resistant states including type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, and HIV-associated lipodystrophy. To determine the role of IL-6 in the development of insulin resistance, we examined the effects of IL-6 treatment on whole-body insulin action and glucose(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates an important role for serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in the regulation of insulin action. Recent studies suggest that Rho-kinase (ROK) is a mediator of insulin signaling, via interaction with IRS-1. Here we show that insulin stimulation of glucose transport is impaired when ROK is chemically or biologically inhibited in(More)
Rho kinase (ROCK) isoforms regulate insulin signaling and glucose metabolism negatively or positively in cultured cell lines and skeletal muscle. However, the in vivo function of the ROCK1 isoform in adipose tissue has not been addressed. To determine the specific role of the adipose ROCK1 isoform in the development of insulin resistance and obesity, mice(More)
In humans with obesity or type 2 diabetes, insulin target tissues are resistant to many actions of insulin. The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms lambda and zeta are downstream of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) and are required for maximal insulin stimulation of glucose uptake. Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK-1), also(More)