Young-Bum Kim

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beta cells sense glucose through its metabolism and the resulting increase in ATP, which subsequently stimulates insulin secretion. Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) mediates mitochondrial proton leak, decreasing ATP production. In the present study, we assessed UCP2's role in regulating insulin secretion. UCP2-deficient mice had higher islet ATP levels and(More)
Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays a pivotal role in regulating food intake, energy expenditure and neuroendocrine function. Leptin stimulates the oxidation of fatty acids and the uptake of glucose, and prevents the accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues, which can lead to functional impairments known as "lipotoxicity". The(More)
Mice lacking the protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B are hypersensitive to insulin and resistant to obesity. However, the molecular basis for resistance to obesity has been unclear. Here we show that PTP1B regulates leptin signaling. In transfection studies, PTP1B dephosphorylates the leptin receptor-associated kinase, Jak2. PTP1B is expressed in(More)
This paper presents the results of the two shared tasks associated with W-NUT 2015: (1) a text normalization task with 10 participants; and (2) a named entity tagging task with 8 participants. We outline the task, annotation process and dataset statistics, and provide a high-level overview of the participating systems for each shared task.
Insulin signaling in the hypothalamus plays a role in maintaining body weight. Studies suggest that the forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 is an important mediator of insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Here we demonstrate that in normal mice, hypothalamic Foxo1 expression is reduced by the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. These hormones'(More)
The circulating level of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 is elevated in various insulin-resistant states including type 2 diabetes, obesity, cancer, and HIV-associated lipodystrophy. To determine the role of IL-6 in the development of insulin resistance, we examined the effects of IL-6 treatment on whole-body insulin action and glucose(More)
Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a major negative regulator of insulin and leptin sensitivity. PTP1B overexpression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of humans and rodents may contribute to insulin resistance and obesity. The mechanisms mediating PTP1B overexpression in obese and diabetic states have been unclear. We find that adipose tissue(More)
Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease characterized by insulin resistance and altered glucose and lipid metabolism in multiple organs. To understand the complex series of events that occur during the development of obesity-associated diabetes, we examined the temporal pattern of changes in insulin action and glucose metabolism in individual organs(More)
PGC-1beta is a transcriptional coactivator that potently stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration of cells. Here, we have generated mice lacking exons 3 to 4 of the Pgc-1beta gene (Pgc-1beta(E3,4-/E3,4-) mice). These mice express a mutant protein that has reduced coactivation activity on a subset of transcription factors, including ERRalpha, a(More)
The Rho family of GTPases regulates many aspects of cellular behavior through alterations to the actin cytoskeleton . The majority of the Rho family proteins function as molecular switches cycling between the active, GTP-bound and the inactive, GDP-bound conformations . Unlike typical Rho-family proteins, the Rnd subfamily members, including Rnd1, Rnd2,(More)