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In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), geographic routing protocols appear to be a fascinating option since they have generally low delay and small routing overhead and GPS devices are becoming affordable. However, we reveal that geographic routing protocols suffer from routing holes when nodes are distributed only on lines such as cars on roads, trains on(More)
Finding a reliable and efficient routing path in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) is a challenging issue due to high mobility of vehicles and frequent link breakage. Motivated by this, we propose a robust and efficient routing protocol, called MMR. The contribution of this paper is two-fold: two-level routing and a new routing metric. A routing process of(More)
There are several mechanisms by which users can gain insight into where their packets have gone, but no mechanisms allow users undeniable proof that their packets did not traverse certain parts of the world while on their way to or from another host. This paper introduces the problem of finding "proofs of avoidance": evidence that the paths taken by a(More)
RBP [1] improves the reliability of flooding, by using the retransmission mechanism. The retransmission policy of RBP is to perform retransmissions only if the received ACK ratio is less than a certain threshold. The ACK ratio is the number An explicit ACK refers to an ACK packet transmitted by a receiver to confirm the success of transmission, directly.(More)
Addresses in the Internet are typically measured as if they represent larger aggregates. These larger blocks may be based on prefixes advertised through BGP, with larger prefixes broken into "/24s." Such an approach is typical in network mapping and other research, and tries to balance the detail available by probing more addresses with the efficiency(More)
Flooding, that is to deliver a packet from one node to all other nodes in the network, is an integral part of many wireless protocols. Flooding is often implemented by a series of broadcasts of each node and this causes some problems such as the broadcast storm and low reliability, by being engaged with the effects of radio signal propagation, e.g.,(More)
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