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A peptide that potentiates twitch contraction of the radula retractor muscle of the prosobranch mollusc Fusinus ferrugineus was isolated from the ganglia of the animal. Its primary structure is H-Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 (APGWamide) closely related to the C-terminal tetrapeptide of the crustacean red-pigment-concentrating hormone. APGWamide showed modulatory(More)
Two novel neuropeptides, urechistachykinin I (H-Leu-Arg-Gln-Ser-Gln-Phe-Val-Gly-Ser-Arg-NH2) and urechistachykinin II (H-Ala-Ala-Gly-Met-Gly-Phe-Phe-Gly-Ala-Arg-NH2), were isolated from the ventral nerve cords of the echiuroid worm, Urechis unicinctus. These peptides showed a contractile action on the inner circular body-wall muscle of the animal. Their(More)
1. Effects of the molluscan neuropeptide APGW-amide and related compounds (the crustacean hormone RPCH, FAPGW-amide, PGW-amide, GW-amide and W-amide) were examined in several kinds of molluscan muscles. 2. All the compounds, except W-amide, showed qualitatively similar modulatory effects on contraction or relaxation of the muscles. The potency order of the(More)
Effects of myoactive tetradecapeptides, Achatina excitatory peptide 2 and 3 (AEP2 and AEP3) and Fusinus excitatory peptide 4 (FEP4), on several molluscan muscles and neurons were investigated. In the penis retractor and radula retractor muscles of Achatina fulica (pulmonate), the three peptides enhanced the tetanic contraction elicited by nerve(More)
A member of the GGNG peptide family was isolated from Hirudo nipponia (leech). GGNG peptides had only been isolated previously from earthworms. The C-terminus structure of the leech peptide, LEP (leech excitatory peptide), was -Gly-Gly-Asn-amide, while that of the earthworm peptides, EEP (earthworm excitatory peptide), was -Gly-Gly-Asn-Gly. LEP exerted(More)
Distribution of locustatachykinin-like immunoreactive (LomTKLI) and leucokinin like immunoreactive (LKLI) neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis was investigated and compared to that found in Helix pomatia. Occurrence of LomTKLI neurons in different ganglia of the freshwater bivalve, Anodonta cygnea, was also(More)
APGWamide (L-Ala-L-Pro-Gly-L-Trp-NH2) was purified from the ganglia of an African giant snail (Achatina fulica Ferussac). This peptide inhibited (hyperpolarized) more than half of the Achatina neurone types tested. This produced an outward current with the membrane conductance increase of RAPN (right anterior pallial neurone) under voltage clamp. The ED50(More)
Urechistachykinin I and II (Uru-TK I and II) are invertebrate tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs), which have been isolated from echiuroid worms. The cDNA sequence encoding the Uru-TK I and II revealed that the precursor also encoded five TRP-like peptides. Here, we report the characterization of these Uru-TK-like peptides named as Uru-TK III-VII. Northern(More)
Tachykinin is one of the most well-known bioactive peptides found in vertebrates, and tachykinin-related peptides have also been isolated from various invertebrate species. Urechistachykinin I (Leu-Arg-Gln-Ser-Gln-Phe-Val-Gly-Ser-Arg-NH(2)) and II (Ala-Ala-Gly-Met-Gly-Phe-Phe-Gly-Ala-Arg-NH(2)) were purified from the ventral nerve cords of echiuroid worm,(More)
1. We searched for bioactive peptides, most of which were considered to be neuropeptides, in various animals of several phyla. These peptides were compared with each other and with peptides identified by many other investigators. Consequently, we found that structures of neuropeptides are generally conserved in each phylum. 2. We also found some exceptional(More)