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Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) or pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is required to transfer carbons from pyruvate into the Krebs cycle. PC activity is preserved in the islets of obese animals, but it is reduced in the islets of animal models of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that PC is important in beta cell adaptation to insulin resistance and that PC reduction may(More)
The pyruvate–malate shuttle is a metabolic cycle in pancreatic beta cells and is important for beta cell function. Cytosolic malic enzyme (ME) carries out an essential step in the shuttle by converting malate to pyruvate and generating NADPH. In rat islets the pyruvate–malate shuttle may regulate insulin secretion and it has been shown to play a critical(More)
Obesity is a global problem with high risks of cardiovascular diseases, stroke and type 2 diabetes. It is well known that maternal obesity affects offspring by inducing malformation, functional abnormalities in many organs and cells, and by increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about abnormalities induced by maternal(More)
With respect to different confidence on evaluation result from different decision-makers to the hybrid multi-attribute with risk, an approach to group decisionmaking based on prospect theory and projection theory is proposed. Firstly, a tuple is established to record the evaluation result and the hybrid decision information. Then the element of the tuple is(More)
Glycaemia does not change following a 60 % pancreatectomy in rats because of enhanced beta-cell function and proliferation (so-called beta-cell adaptation). We previously studied these rats 4 weeks after surgery and showed hypersensitization of glucose-induced insulin secretion because of increased glucokinase activity. In this study of 60 % pancreatectomy(More)
The glucose-stimulated rise in Fru-2,6-P2 in liver results from xylulose 5-P activation of a specific protein phosphatase 2A which dephosphorylates Fru-6-P,2-kinase:Fru-2,6-bisphosphatase (Nishimura, M., and Uyeda, K. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 26100-26106). In order to determine the role of xylulose 5-P in regulating Fru-2, 6-P2 in liver, the effect of(More)
Early compensatory mechanisms of regeneration following partial pancreatectomy involve ductal proliferation and, subsequently, differentiation into acinar and endocrine cell types, although it is not clear how these processes are regulated. We investigated the expression and roles of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) and protein kinase B/Akt (Akt) in(More)
In order to determine the mechanism for delayed increase in Fructose 2,6-P2 in livers of refed rats, the time course of changes in various metabolites upon refeeding NIH or high sucrose diet was investigated. Kinetics of increase in Fructose 2,6-P2 and Xylulose 5-P were similar but different from hexose 6-P or glycogen in the livers of 48 h starved rats(More)
Reject inference is a term that distinguishes attempts to correct models in view of the characteristics of rejected applicants. The main difficulty in establishing reject inference model is that the 'through-the-door' applicant population is unavailable. In this paper, we propose a hybrid data mining technique for reject inference. It is a three-stage(More)
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