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Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) are often present at the sites of tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases, which has led to the conclusion that T(H)17 cells are main drivers of autoimmune tissue injury. However, not all T(H)17 cells are pathogenic; in fact, T(H)17 cells generated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)(More)
The most widely held explanation for the efficacy of local radiotherapy (RT) is based on direct cytotoxicity to cancer cells through the induction of lethal DNA damage. Recent studies have shown that local ablative radiation of established tumors can lead to increased T-cell priming and T-cell-dependent tumor regression, but the underlying mechanism remains(More)
Malonyl-CoA is an intermediary compound that is produced during fatty acid metabolism. Our study aimed to produce the commercially important platform chemical 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) from its immediate precursor malonyl-CoA by recombinant Escherichia coli strains heterologously expressing the mcr gene of Chloroflexus aurantiacus DSM 635, encoding an(More)
Patients with locally advanced cancer or distant metastasis frequently receive prolonged treatment with chemotherapy and/or fractionated radiotherapy (RT). Despite the initial clinical response, treatment resistance frequently develops and cure in these patients is uncommon. Developments in RT technology allow for the use of high-dose (or ablative) RT to(More)
Despite their importance, the molecular circuits that control the differentiation of naive T cells remain largely unknown. Recent studies that reconstructed regulatory networks in mammalian cells have focused on short-term responses and relied on perturbation-based approaches that cannot be readily applied to primary T cells. Here we combine transcriptional(More)
The development of spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is preceded by the organization of tertiary lymphoid organ (TLO) in situ, but its role in the development of tissue destruction and the cytokines that control such structures have not been fully defined. We have now observed that TNF superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) is upregulated in aged nonobese(More)
Tumor environment can be critical for preventing the immunological destruction of antigenic tumors. We have observed a selective accumulation of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells inside tumors. In a murine fibrosarcoma L(d)-expressing Ag104, these cells made up the majority of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes at the late stage of tumor progression, and their depletion(More)
Hypoxia triggers physiological and pathological cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and death, in several cell types. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from various tissues have self-renewal activity and can differentiate towards multiple lineages. Recently, it has been reported that hypoxic conditions tip the balance between(More)
Th17 cells have been shown to be strong inducers of tissue inflammation and autoimmune diseases. However, not all Th17 cells are pathogenic and increasing data suggest that Th17 cells may come in different flavors. Thus, Th17 cells cannot be described using a narrow schematic, but instead Th17 cells comprise a wide spectrum with a range of effector(More)
The tumor barrier comprised of nonantigenic stromal cells may contribute to the failure of tumor rejection. The tumor-necrosis factor superfamily member LIGHT (also known as TNFSF-14) is a ligand of stromal cell-expressed lymphotoxin-beta receptor and T cell-expressed herpes viral entry mediator (HVEM). Here we show that forced expression of LIGHT in the(More)