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Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper T cells (T(H)17 cells) are often present at the sites of tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases, which has led to the conclusion that T(H)17 cells are main drivers of autoimmune tissue injury. However, not all T(H)17 cells are pathogenic; in fact, T(H)17 cells generated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)(More)
Despite their importance, the molecular circuits that control the differentiation of naive T cells remain largely unknown. Recent studies that reconstructed regulatory networks in mammalian cells have focused on short-term responses and relied on perturbation-based approaches that cannot be readily applied to primary T cells. Here we combine transcriptional(More)
Tumor environment can be critical for preventing the immunological destruction of antigenic tumors. We have observed a selective accumulation of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells inside tumors. In a murine fibrosarcoma L(d)-expressing Ag104, these cells made up the majority of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes at the late stage of tumor progression, and their depletion(More)
Extensive cellular heterogeneity exists within specific immune-cell subtypes classified as a single lineage, but its molecular underpinnings are rarely characterized at a genomic scale. Here, we use single-cell RNA-seq to investigate the molecular mechanisms governing heterogeneity and pathogenicity of Th17 cells isolated from the central nervous system(More)
MHC class I-restricted tumor antigens can be presented to CD8+ T cells by two distinct pathways: via direct and indirect presentation. The relative contribution of these two pathways toward the initial activation of tumor antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and their subsequent tumor rejection is still vigorously debated. Using a tumor model able to dissect the(More)
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an essential negative regulator of T cell responses. Germline Ctla4 deficiency is lethal, making investigation of the function of CTLA-4 on mature T cells challenging. To elucidate the function of CTLA-4 on mature T cells, we have conditionally ablated Ctla4 in adult mice. We show that, in contrast to germline(More)
Th17 cells play a critical role in host defense against extracellular pathogens and tissue homeostasis but can induce autoimmunity. The mechanisms implicated in balancing "pathogenic" and "non-pathogenic" Th17 cell states remain largely unknown. We used single-cell RNA-seq to identify CD5L/AIM as a regulator expressed in non-pathogenic, but not in(More)
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) has clinical, pathologic and pathomechanistic overlap with some inherited muscle and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, DNA from 79 patients with sIBM was collected and the sequencing of 38 genes associated with hereditary inclusion body myopathy (IBM), myofibrillar myopathy, Emery-Dreifuss muscular(More)
Although elevated levels of IgE in asthmatic patients are strongly associated with lung infiltration by activated T helper (Th) 2 cells, the physiological role of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the airway remains largely undefined. Lymphotoxin-deficient alpha (LTalpha-/-) mice exhibit increased airway inflammation, paradoxically accompanied by diminished levels(More)
Dominant mutations in p97/VCP (valosin-containing protein) cause a rare multisystem degenerative disease with varied phenotypes that include inclusion body myopathy, Paget's disease of bone, frontotemporal dementia, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. p97 disease mutants have altered N-domain conformations, elevated ATPase activity, and altered cofactor(More)