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Protein kinases that phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2alpha) are activated in stressed cells and negatively regulate protein synthesis. Phenotypic analysis of targeted mutations in murine cells reveals a novel role for eIF2alpha kinases in regulating gene expression in the unfolded protein response (UPR) and in amino(More)
Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) inhibit translation initiation. This response is believed to be mediated by increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) and is hypothesized to reduce the work load imposed on the folding machinery during stress. Here we report that mutating the gene encoding the ER(More)
Protein synthesis and the folding of the newly synthesized proteins into the correct three-dimensional structure are coupled in cellular compartments of the exocytosis pathway by a process that modulates the phosphorylation level of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF2alpha) in response to a stress signal from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Activation(More)
Malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induce cellular stress and activate c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs or SAPKs). Mammalian homologs of yeast IRE1, which activate chaperone genes in response to ER stress, also activated JNK, and IRE1alpha-/- fibroblasts were impaired in JNK activation by ER stress. The cytoplasmic part of IRE1 bound(More)
PERK and IRE1 are type-I transmembrane protein kinases that reside in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and transmit stress signals in response to perturbation of protein folding. Here we show that the lumenal domains of these two proteins are functionally interchangeable in mediating an ER stress response and that, in unstressed cells, both lumenal domains(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 has been shown to be a key regulator of gene expression during the onset of a plant disease-resistance response known as systemic acquired resistance. The npr1 mutant plants fail to respond to systemic acquired resistance-inducing signals such as salicylic acid (SA), or express SA-induced pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Using(More)
The Arabidopsis NPR1 protein is an essential regulatory component of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Mutations in the NPR1 gene completely block the induction of SAR by signals such as salicylic acid (SA). An Arabidopsis mutant, snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1), was isolated in a screen for suppressors of npr1-1. In the npr1-1 background, the(More)
Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder in which familial-linked genes have provided novel insights into the pathogenesis of this disorder. Mutations in Parkin, a ring-finger-containing protein of unknown function, are implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive familial Parkinson's disease. Here, we show that Parkin binds to(More)
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, but significant side effects such as gastrointestinal erosion and renal damage limit their use. NSAIDs inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane. Two forms of COX(More)
The Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI:2) is a generic multiattribute, preference-based system for assessing health-related quality of life. Health Utilities Index Mark 2 consists of two components: a seven-attribute health status classification system and a scoring formula. The seven attributes are sensation, mobility, emotion, cognition, self-care, pain,(More)