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IMPORTANCE Mutations in the GNAL gene have recently been shown to cause primary torsion dystonia. The GNAL-encoded protein (Gαolf) is important for dopamine D1 receptor function and odorant signal transduction. We sequenced all 12 exons of GNAL in 461 patients from Germany, Serbia, and Japan, including 318 patients with dystonia (190 with cervical(More)
Since the 1980s the Department of Hygiene and Oral Health at the Showa University School of Dentistry has focused its research efforts on the development of feeding function and disorders. In addition, we have treated dysphagic children and dysphagic elderly using our feeding training program approach. The developmental course of the feeding function(More)
PURPOSE For the quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter (DAT) using [123I]FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (DaTscan), anatomic standardization is preferable for achieving objective and user-independent quantification of striatal binding using a volume-of-interest (VOI) template. However, low accumulation of DAT in(More)
Identification of causative genes for hereditary dystonia and elucidation of their functions are crucial for better understanding of dystonia pathogenesis. As seen in other hereditary neurologic disorders, intra- and inter-familial clinical variations have been demonstrated in hereditary dystonia. Asymptomatic carriers can be found due to alterations in(More)
Spasticity is characterized by increased muscle resistance. It is usually associated with muscle weakness or poor motor control. This condition not only reduces activities of daily living (ADLs), but also interferes personal hygiere and causes caregiuer's difficulty. The use of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intramuscular injections is a simple and effective(More)
The purpose of this study was to establish an assessment method for evaluation of hand and mouth coordination during self-feeding. The subjects were four normally developed infants. Their feeding behavior was videotaped at two or four week intervals (from age eight months to thirty-six months). The items analyzed were nine viewpoints for finger feeding and(More)
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