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IMPORTANCE Mutations in the GNAL gene have recently been shown to cause primary torsion dystonia. The GNAL-encoded protein (Gαolf) is important for dopamine D1 receptor function and odorant signal transduction. We sequenced all 12 exons of GNAL in 461 patients from Germany, Serbia, and Japan, including 318 patients with dystonia (190 with cervical(More)
Spasticity is characterized by increased muscle resistance. It is usually associated with muscle weakness or poor motor control. This condition not only reduces activities of daily living (ADLs), but also interferes personal hygiere and causes caregiuer's difficulty. The use of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intramuscular injections is a simple and effective(More)
For the quantitative assessment of dopamine transporter (DAT) using [123I]FP-CIT single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (DaTscan), anatomic standardization is preferable for achieving objective and user-independent quantification of striatal binding using a volume-of-interest (VOI) template. However, low accumulation of DAT in Parkinson’s(More)
Identification of causative genes for hereditary dystonia and elucidation of their functions are crucial for better understanding of dystonia pathogenesis. As seen in other hereditary neurologic disorders, intra- and inter-familial clinical variations have been demonstrated in hereditary dystonia. Asymptomatic carriers can be found due to alterations in(More)
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