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Inflammatory caspases (caspases 1, 4, 5 and 11) are activated in response to microbial infection and danger signals. When activated, they cleave mouse and human gasdermin D (GSDMD) after Asp276 and Asp275, respectively, to generate an N-terminal cleavage product (GSDMD-NT) that triggers inflammatory death (pyroptosis) and release of inflammatory cytokines(More)
Adhesion and detachment are coordinated critical steps during cell migration. Conceptually, efficient migration requires both effective stabilization of membrane protrusions at the leading edge via nascent adhesions and their successful persistence during retraction of the trailing side via disruption of focal adhesions. As nascent adhesions are much(More)
Stimulator of interferon genes (STING, also known as MITA, ERIS, or MPYS) is essential for host immune responses triggered by microbial DNAs. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying STING-mediated signaling are not fully understood. We report here that, upon cytoplasmic DNA stimulation, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein AMFR was recruited to and(More)
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a common complication of pregnancy manifested as skin pruritus of cholestasis. ICP occurs mainly in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and may cause fetal distress, unexpected intrauterine fetal death and does serious harm to maternal and fetal health. The pathogenesis of ICP is still unclear. In ICP(More)
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a pregnancy-associated liver disease with potentially deleterious consequences for the fetus, particularly when maternal serum bile-acid concentration >40 μM. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of ICP remain elusive. To reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms for the association of maternal serum(More)
Lymphocyte homing is regulated by the dynamic interaction between integrins and their ligands. Integrin α4β7 mediates both rolling and firm adhesion of lymphocytes by modulating its affinity to the ligand, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1). Although previous studies have revealed some mechanisms of α4β7-MAdCAM-1 binding, little is known(More)
Integrin α4β7 mediates rolling and firm adhesion of lymphocytes pre- and post-activation, which is distinct from most integrins only mediating firm cell adhesion upon activation. This two-phase cell adhesion suggests a unique molecular basis for the dynamic interaction of α4β7 with its ligand, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (MAdCAM-1). Here we(More)
Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells persist indefinitely in epithelial barrier tissues and protect the host against pathogens. However, the biological pathways that enable the long-term survival of TRM cells are obscure. Here we show that mouse CD8+ TRM cells generated by viral infection of the skin differentially express high levels of several molecules(More)
AIM To investigate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression and its relationship with serum bile acids in placental trophoblasts from patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). METHODS Human placenta, including normal pregnancies (n = 10) and patients with ICP (n = 10), were collected at term and subject to TNF-α measurements. Bile(More)
Integrin α4β7 mediates rolling and firm adhesion of leucocytes, two of the critical steps in leukocyte migration and tissue specific homing. Affinity of α4β7 for ligand is dynamically regulated by three interlinked metal ion-binding sites in β7-subunit I domain. In this study, we found that Phe185 (F185), a highly conserved aromatic residue in β7-subunit,(More)