Youcef M. Rustum

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Platinum-type drugs have proven to be valuable in the treatment of a variety of solid tumors, beginning with the commercial approval of cisplatin 18 years ago. There are several clinically important toxicities commonly associated with the administration of these drugs. Despite the extensive use of cisplatin and carboplatin, the fundamental chemical(More)
This report describes the application of a new approach, the universal response surface approach, to the quantitative assessment of drug interaction, i.e., the determination of synergism, antagonism, additivity, potentiation, inhibition, and coalitive action. The specific drug combination and experimental growth system for this introductory application was(More)
PURPOSE Studies were carried out in athymic nude mice bearing human squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (FaDu and A253) and colon carcinoma (HCT-8 and HT-29) xenografts to evaluate the potential role of selenium-containing compounds as selective modulators of the toxicity and antitumor activity of selected anticancer drugs with particular emphasis(More)
PURPOSE AND METHODS Although fluoropyrimidines, in particular, fluorouracil (5-FU) and fluorodeoxyuridine (FdUrd), are active alone and in combination with other agents in a variety of human malignancies, therapeutic selectivity, resistance, and efficacy have been a major limitation in cancer therapy. Preclinical and clinical results in advanced and(More)
DNA histograms were measured by flow cytometry for 656 human solid tumors (365 primary and 291 metastatic). The proportion of aneuploid cells in cell suspensions obtained by mechanical disaggregation was significantly higher than those obtained after enzymatic disaggregation (collagenase + DNAse) of the same tumor. A strong correlation was observed between(More)
Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a chemotherapeutic agent that is active in the treatment of a variety of solid tumor malignancies. Diarrhea represents the most common dose-limiting toxicity that is independent of the schedule of administration. A rat model with dose-limiting toxicity profiles that are similar to those observed in patients treated with CPT-11 was(More)
5-Ethynyluracil (EU; 776C85) is a potent inactivator of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, the enzyme that rapidly degrades 5-fluorouracil (FUra). We have investigated the antitumor activity and toxicity of FUra alone and in combination with EU in rats bearing advanced colon carcinoma. Two schedules were studied: (a) FUra daily for 4 days i.v. push (daily x(More)
PURPOSE We conducted a retrospective analysis of safety data from randomized, single-agent fluoropyrimidine clinical trials (bolus fluorouracil/leucovorin [FU/LV] and capecitabine) to test the hypothesis that there are regional differences in fluoropyrimidine tolerability. METHODS Treatment-related safety data from three phase III clinical studies were(More)
For potential clinical extrapolation of in vitro findings, it is of interest to relate the measured effect of an anticancer agent to concentration and exposure time. The Hill model (A. V. Hill, J. Physiol., 40: iv-vii, 1910) is commonly used to describe pharmacodynamic (PD) effects, including drug-induced growth inhibition of cancer cells in vitro. The(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been reported to induce apoptosis in a variety of malignant cell lines, but it shows little or no toxicity in most normal cells. We examined the response of three human colon tumors to TRAIL alone and in combination with chemotherapy, using SCID mice engrafted with intact patient surgical(More)