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The goal of this investigation was to determine the distribution of myocardial apoptosis in myocytes and nonmyocytes in primates and patients with heart failure (HF). Almost all clinical cardiologists and cardiovascular investigators believe that myocyte apoptosis is considered to be a cardinal sign of HF and a major factor in its pathogenesis. However,(More)
Decreased cardiac contractility is a central feature of systolic heart failure. Existing drugs increase cardiac contractility indirectly through signaling cascades but are limited by their mechanism-related adverse effects. To avoid these limitations, we previously developed omecamtiv mecarbil, a small-molecule, direct activator of cardiac myosin. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND The failing heart demonstrates a preference for glucose as its metabolic substrate. Whether enhancing myocardial glucose uptake favorably influences left ventricular (LV) contractile performance in heart failure remains uncertain. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a naturally occurring incretin with potent insulinotropic effects the action of(More)
We have shown previously that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-(7-36) amide increases myocardial glucose uptake and improves left ventricular (LV) and systemic hemodynamics in both conscious dogs with pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and humans with LV systolic dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. However, GLP-1-(7-36) is rapidly(More)
Recent evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) enhances recovery of left ventricular (LV) function after transient coronary artery occlusion. However, it is uncertain whether GLP-1 has direct effects on normal or ischemic myocardium and whether the mechanism involves increased myocardial glucose uptake. LV function and myocardial glucose(More)
We examined the effects of gender and aging on cardiac and peripheral hemodynamic responses to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation in young (male = 5.9 +/- 0.4 yr old and female = 6.5 +/- 0.7 yr old) and old (male = 19.8 +/- 0.7 yr old and female = 21.2 +/- 0.2 yr old) conscious monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), chronically instrumented for(More)
Although increased vascular stiffness is more prominent in aging males than females, and males are more prone to vascular disease with aging, no study has investigated the genes potentially responsible for sex differences in vascular aging. We tested the hypothesis that the transcriptional adaptation to aging differs in males and females using a monkey(More)
The second window of ischemic preconditioning (SWOP) provides maximal protection against ischemia through regulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), yet its application is limited by the inconvenience of the preliminary ischemic stimulus required for prophylaxis. Overexpression of H11 kinase/Hsp22 (Hsp22) in a transgenic mouse model provides(More)
BACKGROUND We have shown that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1[7-36] amide) stimulates myocardial glucose uptake in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) independent of an insulinotropic effect. The cellular mechanisms of GLP-1-induced myocardial glucose uptake are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS Myocardial substrates and glucoregulatory hormones were measured in(More)
BACKGROUND The failing heart demonstrates a preference for glucose as its metabolic substrate. Advanced, severe DCM is characterized by depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stores, which may be a consequence of impaired insulin mediated glucose uptake and oxidation at a time when the myocardium prefers glucose as its substrate. We examined the time(More)