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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protein Vif has a central role in the neutralization of host innate defences by hijacking cellular proteasomal degradation pathways to subvert the antiviral activity of host restriction factors; however, the underlying mechanism by which Vif achieves this remains unclear. Here we report a crystal structure of the(More)
The transition metal cobalt, an essential cofactor for many enzymes in prokaryotes, is taken up by several specific transport systems. The CbiMNQO protein complex belongs to type-1 energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters and is a widespread group of microbial cobalt transporters. CbiO is the ATPase subunit (A-component) of the cobalt transporting system(More)
The energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters are multi-subunit protein complexes that mediate uptake of transition-metal ions and vitamins in about 50% of the prokaryotes, including bacteria and archaea. Biological and structural studies have been focused on ECF transporters for vitamins, but the molecular mechanism by which ECF systems transport metal(More)
A VR simulator provides low-cost, realistic training for intracardiac techniques for determining the heart's mechanical and electrical activities. A geometric method models interaction between a catheter and the heart wall. Boundary-enhanced voxelization accelerates detection of catheter-heart interaction. A tactile interface incorporates a VR catheter unit(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, and the GABAergic synaptic transmission is normally terminated by the rapid uptake through GABA transporters. With transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing GABA transporter subtype I (GAT1), the present study explored the pathophysiological role of GAT1 in epileptogenesis.(More)
The projections from the spinal cord to the cerebellar cortex were studied using retrograde neuronal tracers. Thus far, no study has shown the detailed topographic mapping of the projections from the spinal neuron clusters to the cerebellar cortex regions for experimental animals, and there are no studies for the mouse. Tracers Fluoro-Gold and cholera toxin(More)
We have used the histochemical and immunohistochemical staining methods and maps of gene expression to analyze the structure of the inferior olive of the C57BL mouse. As in other mammals, the inferior olive of the C57BL mouse contains three major nuclei, the medial nucleus, the principal nucleus, and the dorsal nucleus. The medial nucleus can be divided(More)
Since more and more evidence suggests anesthetics serve as a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examine the neurotoxicity of a commonly used inhalational anesthetics, desflurane, and its potential toxicity mechanism in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Here we show that desflurane increase the cytotoxicity of intracellular and extracellular amyloid(More)
One-dimensional flexible supercapacitor yarns are of considerable interest for future wearable electronics. The bottleneck in this field is how to develop devices of high energy and power density, by using economically viable materials and scalable fabrication technologies. Here we report a hierarchical graphene-metallic textile composite electrode concept(More)