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BACKGROUND Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has rapidly spread among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China in recent years; the magnitude of the epidemic is unclear. We sought to test 3 hypotheses: (1) The prevalence of both HIV and syphilis among MSM in China is high, (2) the 2 epidemics each have unique geographical distributions, and (3) demographic(More)
The distribution of mitochondria within mature, differentiated neurons is clearly adapted to their regional physiological needs and can be perturbed under various pathological conditions, but the function of mitochondria in developing neurons has been less well studied. We have studied mitochondrial distribution within developing mouse cerebellar Purkinje(More)
We investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of argirein and rhein on inflammatory edema in rat paw which was caused by complete adjuvant, compared with ibuprofen. We hypothesized that the adjuvant-induced inflammation is attributed to upregulation of activating transcript factor 6 (ATF6; a chaperone for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress), p66Shc (an(More)
OBJECTIVES We investigated the effect of argirein on acute inflammation edema and examined that aquaporin 4 (AQP4), p66Shc and activating transcription factor (ATF-6) might be involved in carrageenan-induced rat paw inflammation and be reversed by argirein, rhein and indometacin, but not L-arginine. METHODS Inflammation was produced by carrageenan(More)
The nucleus incertus (NI) is a small cluster of brainstem neurons presumed to play a role in stress responses. We show that swim stress (normal water: 30 min and cold water: 20 min) and elevation stress robustly induced c-Fos expression in the NI and significantly suppressed long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampo-medial prefrontal cortical (HP-mPFC)(More)
The core pluripotency factor Oct4 plays key roles in somatic cell reprogramming through transcriptional control. Here, we profile Oct4 occupancy, epigenetic changes, and gene expression in reprogramming. We find that Oct4 binds in a hierarchical manner to target sites with primed epigenetic modifications. Oct4 binding is temporally continuous and seldom(More)
Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into totipotent embryos through somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, most cloned embryos arrest at early stages and the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unexplored. Here, we first developed a somatic cell nuclear transfer embryo biopsy system at two- or four-cell stage, which allows us to(More)
Macrophages as an early stage of immune responses form a bridge between innate and acquired immunity and shape the adaptive immune response. The immunoregulatory functions of macrophages in hosts with a prolonged exposure to a diabetic milieu remain to be determined. The levels, phenotype, and immunity including antigen-presenting ability, phagocytosis and(More)
Phagocytosis, one of the apparent functions for macrophages, represents an early and crucial event in triggering host defenses against invading pathogens as well as allo- or xenogeneic rejection. Now, some methods have been used in detecting the opsonic phagocytosis of macrophages in xenogeneic settings. Efficient nonopsonic phagocytosis analysis method has(More)
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the rat has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes, including working memory and expression of fear memory. We investigated the inputs from a brain stem nucleus, the nucleus incertus (NI), to the prelimbic area of the mPFC. This nucleus strongly expresses corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1 )(More)