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Enhanced echo intensity (EI) on an ultrasound image of skeletal muscle indicates changes in muscle quality, including increases in intramuscular fibrous and adipose tissues. However, it is not known whether muscle quality assessed from the EI of computer-aided gray-scale analysis of an ultrasound image is associated with the muscle strength or body(More)
BACKGROUND It is well known that loss of muscle mass (quantitative change) is a major change that occurs with aging. Qualitative changes in skeletal muscle, such as increased intramuscular fat, also occur as one ages. Enhanced echo intensity (EI) on ultrasonography images of skeletal muscle is believed to reflect muscle quality. Recent studies evaluating(More)
The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate changes in muscle activity associated with physiological fatigue and decreased swimming velocity (SV) during 200 m of front crawl swimming, and (2) to examine the relationship between the decreased SV and changes in kinematic or electromyogram parameters. Twenty swimmers participated in a 4 × 50-m swim test. The(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Increased fear of falling is associated with greater muscular coactivation during standing postural control. Excessive muscular coactivation reduces the performance of agonist muscles. Although several recent studies have observed increased muscular coactivation during walking in older adults, little is known about the relationship(More)
BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle tissue holds a large volume of water partitioned into extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW) fractions. As the ECW may not be related to muscle strength directly, we hypothesized that excluding ECW from muscle volume would strengthen the correlation with muscle strength. METHODS A total of 119 healthy men aged(More)
The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in muscle coactivation during postural control between older and young adults and to identify the characteristics of postural control strategies in older adults by investigating the relationship between muscle coactivation and postural control ability. Forty-six healthy older adults (82.0±7.5 years)(More)
This study tested whether cerebral oxygenation affects cognitive function during exercise. We measured reaction times (RT) of 12 participants while they performed a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task, at rest and while cycling. In the exercise condition, participants performed the cognitive task at rest and while cycling at three workloads [40,(More)
A standardized method for assessing the physical fitness of elderly adults has not yet been established. In this study, we developed an index of physical fitness age (fitness age score, FAS) for older Japanese adults and investigated sex differences based on the estimated FAS. Healthy elderly adults (52 men, 70 women) who underwent physical fitness tests(More)
The purpose of this study was to test if increased oxygen availability affected simple reaction time (RT) to peripheral visual stimuli during exercise. Twelve male participants performed RT tasks at rest, during cycling with three different workloads (100, 150, and 200 W), and after exercise. We fractionated RT into Premotor time and Motor time. Under(More)
We discuss evaluations of bit error probabilities in SSMA (spread spectrum multiple access) communication systems using binary spreading sequences of Markov chains and the designing of binary spreading sequences of Markov chains optimal in terms of bit error probabilities. We study SSMA communication systems using binary spreading sequences of Markov chains(More)